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52 Cards in this Set

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what are 5 factors that control streams behavior
average width and depth of channel
channel gradient
average velocity of water
sediment load
discharge=amount of water passing a point during a given internal of time
discharge is measured in?
m^3/s Q= W * D * V
volume of material thats filled with air or water compared to volume of solids
measure of ease of moving water through the pore space
what are the 8 main ions in sea water that cause 99% of salinity?
Chlorine 55
NA 31
So4 7.7
Mg 3.7
Ca 1
K 1
HC03 .4
Br .2
can not see men cause ken hurt bob they go down percentage as the list goes on
will form in a protected bowl shaped depression on a mountainside
cirque glacier
cirque glacier that expands into a mountain valley
Valley Glacier
glacier found in a flooded valley
Fjord Glacier
Formed at high latitudes and cover land surface
Ice Cap
continent sized glacier found in Greenland and Antartica consists of 95% galcier ice. Can be up to 3,000 meters thick.
Ice Sheet
occurs in large embayments along coast of antartica
ice shelf
extends from surface to 100-50m depth consists of relatively warm water, mixed layer driven by wind waves temperature changes
surface zone
thermocline, helocline, pycnocline (temperature, salintiy, and density)
zone without a name
80% of oceans volume cold, salinity is high, density is high
Deep Zone
the total area that contributes water to a stream
Drainage Basin
portion of precipitation that flows over the land surface
run off
water that flows down slope along clearly defined material passageway
large subcircular current system
water moves at a 90 degree angle to world
Echman Transport
upwelling- occur at low latitudes on western margins of continents
Echman transport causes water to move offshore causes upwelling of cool nutrient rich underlying water
Gyres with Echman Transport
if winds that are moving onshore carries water- water towards shore water pushed down along continental margin
is a complex mixture of gases and aerosol
what are the 4 types of spheres??
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere
0-15 km, Temperature decreases with altitude, air warmed at surface and rises, colder air sinks from above to take its place-endless circulation
top is higher at equator & lower at poles
15-20 km, temperature increase with altitude - warmer at top because O zone absorbs ultra violet rays from sun. It absorbs the most UV rays at top least at the bottom
50-80 km, temperature decrease with altitude
(80-500 km) Temperature increasing with altitude due to absorption of solar radiation by bombardment of protons and electrons from solar wind.
horizontal air movement arising from differences in air pressure. Air pressure is related to density high pressure = air compressed - more compressed air the more dense it becomes
20 km/hr 12 m/hr
pleasant breeze
45 km/hr 28 m/hr
tree branches sway
65 km/hr 40 m/hr
tree branches start to break
90 km/hr 56 m/hr
trees uprooted
180 km/hr 112 m/hr
can pick up cars, people, trailors. These demonstrate hurricaines and tornados
what are the 3 factors that affect wind speed and direction?
air pressure gradients, coriolis effect, friction
drop in pressure per unit distance
air pressure gradients
deviation from a straight line due to earths rotation
coriolis effect
resistance to movement when 2 bodies are in contact
what are some factors of environmental glaciers as archives??
glacier ice can be used to determine past environmental conditions, oldest ice in glacier can be several hundreds-thousands yrs old, scientists take ice cores and examine stratigroaphy,isotopes can tell us the temperature was when ice forms, major volcanic erruptions can be recorded
layers or bodies of material that allow for useable flow of water
melt water forms at very base of glacier due to pressure from overlying ice and snow
basal sliding
what are environmental factors do glaciers need to form?
low temperature
close proxemity to a moisture source
how do glaciers move?
internal flow
basal sliding
what are the 2 zones beneath Earths surface related to groundwater
unsaturated zone and saturated zone
composed of air filled spaces above water table
unsaturated zone
water filled spaces
saturated zone
upper surface of water filled pores, spaces, and fractures in the bedrock and in the soil
water table
what are the 2 types of channel morphology?
meandering and braided
repeatedly divides and reunites as it flows through 2 or more adjacent channels
the velocity across any part is not the same. The max. velocity is in the middle channel where its usually straight. As water rounds a bend in the channel the max. velocity is found on the outside inner side velocity is slowest
what are the 2 types of loads?
bed load and suspended load
coarse particles that move along the stream bed 5-50% of total sediment load in stream
bed load
fine particles that are carried in suspension dissolved load contains Hc03, CA, S04, Cl, NA, mg, X from chemical weathering.
suspended load