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61 Cards in this Set

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Permineralization occurs after burial, as the empty spaces within an organism (spaces filled with liquid or gas during life) become filled with mineral-rich groundwater and the minerals precipitate from the groundwater, thus occupying the empty spaces.
a metamorphic process that occurs under situations of intense temperature and pressure where grains, atoms or molecules of a rock or mineral are packed closer together, creating a new crystal structure. The basic composition remains the same.
formed when an organism or part of an organism is buried within sedimentary strata and its original chemical make-up is altered by mineral solutions, which, molecule by molecule, replace organic compounds with more stable minerals such as silica or calcite.
rocks, which are or have been held inside the digestive tract of an animal.
the change in a population's inherited characteristics or traits from generation to generation.
Inheritance of acquired characters
he hereditary mechanism by which changes in physiology acquired over the life of an organism (such as muscle enlarged through use) are purportedly transmitted to offspring. It is also commonly referred to as the theory of adaptation
Natural Selection
the process by which favorable traits that are heritable propagate throughout a reproductive population: individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with unfavorable traits.
Allopatric speciation
occurs when populations physically isolated by an extrinsic barrier evolve intrinsic (genetic) reproductive isolation such that if the barrier between the populations breaks down, individuals of the two populations can no longer interbreed.
Phyletic gradualism
The hypothesis states that species continue to adapt to new challenges over the course of their history, gradually becoming new species.
Punctuated equilibrium
states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. When evolution does occur, it happens sporadically (by splitting) and occurs relatively quickly compared to the species' full duration on earth.
Evolutionary Trends
Different organisms adopting to similar ways of life
the development of an organism exactly mirrors the evolutionary development of the species.
Divergent Evolution
When an interbreeding population gives rise to diverse descendents
Parallel evolution
Development of similar characteristics in closely related organisms
The study of the relationshops between organisms. These relationships are communicated via cladiograms
The fact or state of being of dying out or having no living descendants
When a species evolves to be so muc hdifferent than the parent species that it is considered exstinct
Mass extinction
Multiple groups of organisms die simltaneously
Linnaean taxonomy
classifies living things into a hierarchy, originally starting with kingdoms. Carl von Linne created this
is the practice and science of classification.
Kingdom Monera
Single celled creatures without a nucleus
Kingdom Protoctistsa
Single celled creatures w/nucleus
Kingdom Fungi
Mushrooms etc
Kingdom Animalia
Multicellular organisms that obtain energy from consuming other organisms
Kingdom Plantae
Plant kingdom
Phylum Porifera
Phylum Cnidaria
Phylum Brachiopoda
Phylum Bryozoa
Microscopic creatures
Phylum Mollusca
Nautilus, snails
Phylum Arthropoda
Crestaceans, shrimp, crab
Phylum Echinodermata
Sea urchin, sand dollars
Phylum Chordata
Backboned creatures
Radioactive Decay
The process where an unstable isotope transforms into a stable isoptope
Alpha Decay
loss of 2 protons and 2 neutrons from nucleus
Beta Decay
electron is emitted from nucleus causing a neutron to change to a proton
Electron capture decay
Proton captures an electron from an electron shell and converts proton to a neutron
Uranium 238
Lead 206
Uranium 235
Lead 207
Thorium 232
Lead 208
Rubidium 87
Strontium 87
Potassium 40
Argon 40
Carbon 14
Nitrogen 14
Fission Tracks
a radiometric dating technique based on analyses of the damage trails, or tracks, left by fission fragments in certain uranium bearing minerals and glasses.
Solar Nebula
a term used in astronomy to denote the cloud of gas and dust left over after the formation of the Sun which eventually formed the moons and planets.
A widely accepted theory of planet formation, the so-called planetesimal hypothesis of Viktor Safronov, states that planets form out of dust grains that collide and stick to form larger and larger bodies.
moon-sized planet embryos within protoplanetary discs.
Moho (Andrija Mohorovic)
the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle.
Low-velocity Zone
Regions of the asthenosphere that cause seismic waves to travel slowly
the solid outermost shell of a rocky planet.
Outer core
Inner core
What is the average density of the earth
The continents are compoosed mostly of granite at about 2.7 g/cm3 oceanic crust being basaltic is 3.3-45 overall density is 5.5g/cm3. Dominatnly iron and nickle
Oldest Crust
Wyoming and China have crust 3.8-3.96 BYA. NW Canada rock is 3.96BYA and in Australia there is rock that is 4.1-4.2 BYA
Oxygen from Photosynthesis
Originally there was no oxgen bacteria created first oxygen. Cyanobacteria appeared in rock record around 3.5BYA 2.5-2.8 BYA there was enugh oxygen so that iron in rocks would rust
Isostatic Loading
By James Hall. Along the edge of the continent sedciment is deposited and pushes down on the crust. So under the crust folds up the earth slides and down folds up and creates mountain ranges
Geosynclinal Theory
By J.D. Dana A dperession in the earths crust adjacent to something. SEdiment accumulates in the depressions. If you can squeeze the circumference of the earth.
F.B. Taylor
1908 the continents moved on the Earth's surface, that a shallow region in the Atlantic marks where Africa and South America were once joined, and that the collisions of continents could uplift mountains.
Alfred Wegner
he publicly advocated the theory of "continental drift", arguing that the continents on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean were drifting apart.
A. L. Du Toit
Said that fossil evidence suggessts continents drifted apart
Resistance to Continental Drift
Uniformitarian views made this seem like it wasa result of catstyrophic processes so that it probably wasnt right