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194 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 new life forms of the Mississippian?
Reptiles, Pentremites(blastoid), Fenestrate Bryozoans(Archimedes), Productid Brachiopods, Foraminiferans
What are foraminiferans?
amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods
What "age" is the Mississippian?
What is the Hercynian Alleghenian orogeny? When did it occur?
A Pennsylvanian age orogeny.
When did Pangaea form?
During the Pennsylvanian
Which contentents are in Laurasia?
North America, Europe, Asia
Which continents are in gondwanaland?
South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia
List the cratonic sequences in order from oldest oungest
Sauk, Tippecanoe, Kaskaskian, Absaroka, Zuni, Tejas
Name 3 analogs of the ancient coal swamps
South Lousiana swamps, everglades, Dismal swamp of north carolina
What lived in the coal swamps?
Trees and shrubs including lycopids
What was the climate of the Pennsylvanian specifically the coal swamps
The trees indicate no growth rings so it was a tropical climate
Name several areas of commercial coal
Illinois basin, central appalachian mountains, maritime provinces of canada
What is the Pennsylvanian known as the age of?
What happened to the populations of the reef bearing crinoids, blastoids, corals, and bryozoans during the Pennsylvanian?
They died off because of the muddy water conditions
What new life forms appeared during the Pennsylvanian?
Brachipods with spiney shells, Reptiles with aminotic eggs, Land Snails, Fusilinids
What are Fusilinids?
Fusilinids are a group of single-celled animals belonging to the Phylum Protozoa
When did insects first form?
When did Amphibians start to form and what kinds?
Pennsylvanian, lbyrinthodonts
What are labyrinthodonts?
term for any member of an extinct superorder or subclass (Labyrinthodontia) of amphibians, which constituted some of the dominant animals of Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic times
What were the vegetation of the pennsylvanian
Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Calamites
What are Lepidodendrons?
) is an extinct genus of primitive, vascular, arborescent (tree-like) plant related to the Lycopsids (club mosses).
What are sperodsids?
Small joint-stemmed plants
What are Hylonomus?
("forest mouse") was an early reptile. Arrived in Pennsylvanian
What are Synapids?
Early mammal-like reptiles. Mammals evolved from this species
What is special about Reptile eggs?
They contain an amniotic sac which allows waste gas out but keeps moisture in. They can be laid on the land and dont have to be laid in the water like the amphibians
What was the climate of North America like in the Permian and why?
Pangaea began to form during the Pennsylvanian and was completely together by the Permian. This led to mountains on the edge of the craton. There were episodes of orographic lifting that ringed the water out of the air and when the winds reached the inner parts of the craton they contained no water and so the middle of the craton was extremely dry.
How deep were the oceans in the Permian?
The ocean basins were deeper and there was a lot of the North American craton exposed.
What was the gulf of mexico and the atlantic ocean like during the permian?
They did not exist because Pangaea was together
What is orographic lifting?
rographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain. As the air mass gains altitude it expands and cools adiabatically. This cooler air cannot hold the moisture as well as warm air and this effectively raises the relative humidity to 100%, creating clouds and frequently precipitation.
What are some examples of the best Permian age outcrops?
Guadalupe Mountains, and Carlsbad Caverns
What is the Northwest shelf?
Permian B asin in SW Texas known for Oil and Gas
what is the Central Basin Platform?
Basin s are downdropped platforms are where the preRocky mountains
What is the Delaware basin
The Delaware Basin in West Texas and southern New Mexico is famous for holding large oil fields and for exposing a fossilized reef. Guadalupe mountains and carlsbad caverns protect it
What is interesting about the water that covered the basins and platforms in Texas/New Mexico during the Permian?
In this age the basins would be deep blue water and the platforms would be turquoise water
What kinds of sediment would you find in the basins of Permian age?
Fine grained silt and clay sized particles
What dominated the reefs of the Permian?
Sponges, algaes, brachipods, bryozoans
What was the platform interior like?
Really shallow water
What are Pisoids? And when and where did they form
They are the big brother of ooids. They form in hypersaline conditions sometimes the size of golf balls. They formed in the platform interior of permian age strata
What happened to Evaporites at the end of the Permian?
Im not sure look it up
What type of environment did the ancestral rocky mountains form?
Eolian. Arid contiditons.
What is the Western Edge of the North American Craton characterized by?
Black organic rich shale made of calcium phosphate and chert.
How did the black organic rich shale of the Westeren Edge of the Craton in the Permian form?
There were strong surface currents to the west. That created upwelling of deep water. The single-celled creatures that lived at the top fell to the bottom when they died and fed the big fish at the bottom. The single-celled creatures that werent eaten were compacted and were full of Silicon Dioxide that helped create chert. The calcium phosphate of the bigger animals also contributed.
What are basal tillites and how are they deposited?
They are deposited by glaciers
What is ice-rafted debris?
Stuff taken out to sea by glaciers
What is the basalt flow cap and what is its age?
Huge basalt flows ranging from Triassic to Tertiary
What is Glossopteris Flora?
Plants characterized by long tongue shaped leaves.
How many species of Glossopteris Flora were there in the Permian?
What kinds of seeds did the Glossopteris Flora have?
Really big seeds
What kind of climate did Glossopteries flora live in?
A seasonal as indicated by the growth rings
What is the Glossopteris Fauna?
What time period was Glossopteria Fauna present?
What is Paleophytic?
spore bearing
What is mesophytic?
seed bearing
What is Cenophytic
Flowering plants
What does mesophytic have to do with Pangaea?
When pangaea formed plants needed seeds to plant themselves around the continent
What types of plants arrived in the Permian
Conifers and Mesophytic plants
Name the animals of the Permian and how they are living?
Ammonites are thriving, Reptiles are thriving, diversifying living in reefs, fusilinids are the index fossil
What happens to the Ammonites during the permian
They thrive
what are the dominant land predators of the Permian?
Who is the king of the land animals in the permian, what helped him survive, and what type of animal is he?
Diometradon. He had a giant sail to catch sun. He is a synapsid
How are insects doing in the Permian
They are diversifying and doing well
What is the index fossil of the Permian
What happens at the end of the permian?
Largest mass extinction ever
What happens to the trilobites at the end of the Permian?
Go extinct
What happens to the fusilinids at the end of the Permian
What happens to the productid brachiopods at the end of the Permian
Bryozoans end of permian?
Nearly wiped out
Crinoids end of permian?
Nearly wiped out. Never recover.
Nautiloids and ammonoids at end of permian?
Nearly wiped out. Never recover.
Bivalves and gastropods end of permian
30% reduction
Amhpibians and Reptiles end of permian?
65% reduction
Insects end of permian
35% reduction
What caused the mass exinction at the end of the permian?
Global coolin? Warming? Reduced marine habitat because of Pangaea.
When did Pangaea begin to rift apart?
During the Trassic
What happened during Stage 1 of the rifting of pangea?
Gondwanaland and Laurasia begin to rift. NA separates from SA and Africa
What happened during stage 2 of the rifting of pangaea and when did it happen
Australia and Antarctica pulls apart from SA and India separates and moves north. Late Triassic to Jurassic
What happened during stage 3 of pangaea rift?
Breakup of SA and africa in late Jurassic By the end of the creataceous Australia and Antarctica begin to pull apart. Greenland begins to separate
What happened during stage 4 of panagaea rift?
During cenozoic Australia continues north drift. greenland completely separates. India collides with Asia
During the Triassic what does the Absaroka Regression allow for?
Terrestrial deposits
What types of beds are notable for the Triassic?
Red beds
What is the sediment west of mississippi river during the mississippian?
Red beds, shale, limestone
What is significant about the Sonomoa Orogeny and when did it occur?
During the Triassic, California was born as mountains that collide with NA. Africa begins to separate from NA and creates rift valley
What is the newark group made of and when did it form?
made of sandstone, shales, and conglomerate up to 17,000 ft think. it formed during triassic
How did the Palisades form and when?
Intrsuive basalts within rift grabens. They are 1,000 feet thick and formed in the Triassic
What is the Moenkopi formation and when did it form?
Accumulated as red beds during the Triassic.spread across the U.S. states of New Mexico, northern Arizona, Nevada, southeastern California, eastern Utah and western Colorado. It formed during the early Triassic.
What is the Chinle formation and when did it form?
Late triassic. Known for petrified wood. Formed in fluvial environment.
When did mammals begin to form?
At the end of the Triassic
What were the first mammals and when did they form?
Tiny insectivores in the late Triassic
What are schleractinian corals and when did they form?
Similar to modern corals formed in triassic
What is protoavis?
Possibly the first bird. Had hollow bones and bird breast structure. Looks like reptile. No feathers.
What are the new life forms of the Triassic?
Mammals, Schleractinian Corals, Lobsters and Shrimp, Protoavis
How many plant species were there in the Triassic?
Less than 400
What types of plants were found in the Chinle formation?
Cycads and conifers
What types of plants were found in the Newark group?
Ferns and rushes
When did the dinosaurs first appear?
During the triassic.
What is Thecodontian? When did they arrive?
Includes dinosaurs, mammals, flying reptiles, therapsids. Teeth in individual sockets. Arrived during Triassic
What are Icthyosaurs?
Poster child of the Triassic. Similar to dolphin
Who is the poster child of the Triassic?
How are ammonites doing in the Triassic?
How are the belemnites doing in the triassic?
What is significant about Jurassic strate east of the mississippi.
It is non existant
Where was the ancient navajo desert? Give NS EW states
Wyoming to Arizona. Colorado to Nevada
When did the Zuni cratonic sequence occur?
During the late Jurassic.
What happened when the Zuni started?
The Epeiric sea returned
What is the Nevadan orogeny and when did it occur?
It occured during the Jurassic. Oceaenic crust subducted under continental. Created mountains similar to Andes.a major mountain building event that took place along the western edge of ancient North America between the Mid to Late Jurassic
What is the Lou Ann Salt and when did it form?
Formed during the Jurassic, it formed on the gulf coast from TX to AL. Caused by rift of NA and SA. Early gulf of mexico evaporates to create salt deposits. Oil and gas accumulate above it. Less dense salt squirts up into "salt domes"
What is the Smackover formation and when did it occur? What is it made of?
A mariane carbonate unit associated with the Zuni. Oil and gas reservoir from TX to AL. Made from ooids
What type of deposits were the Navajo sandstone? Where did it occur and when
Eolian. Early Jurassic in the western US
What is the sundance sea? When did it form? Why?
Epeiric sea in NA. Formed at the end of the Jurassic with the regression of the Zuni
What is Arhcaeopteryx? Where was it found (sepcific)? When did it begin to appear
The first bird? Transition from Dinos to birds. Well developed feathers. Solenhofen limestone. Jurassic
When did moths and flies begin to appear
What happened to Ammonites and Belemnites during Jurassic
They peak
What trees are thriving in the Jurassic
Cycads, Tree ferns, Gingkos
Where can you find a Gingko tree today?
Sid rich
What are Pterasaurs when did they live what size are they
Flying reptiles that lived in the Jurassic. Long pinky finger. Size of sparrow.
What is Plesiosaur?
A marine reptile full of sharp teeth.
When do turtles begin to show?
What is interesting about fresh water reptiles of the Jurassic?
They are unchanged from today
When do the dinosaurs peak?
What is Saurischian
One of the two orders of dinosaurs
What is Ornithischian
One of the two orders of dinosaurs
What ago rock is waco built on
What is the dominant characteristic of Cretaceous strata?
Represents major transgression of Zuni.
When did the major transgression of the Zuni occur?
during the cretaceous
How much of the continents were under water during the Zuni?
Only 1/3 was above.
What is the last major continental transgression?
Why does the Zuni transgression occur?
Rifting of pangeaea creates new low density crust. Old dense crust is subducted. New low density stuff doesnt push down on asthenosphere as much. Ocean basins are smaller.
What is the sevier orogeny when did it occur?
mountain-building event that affected western North America from Canada to the north to Mexico to the south. What orogeny is it a continuation of? Nevadan
What is the laramide orogeny when did it occur/
Created rocky mntns. Late cretaceous early tertiary. 25 million years separate sevier from laramide
What was the climate like in the Cretaceous?
It was much warmer. 15 degreees F on average.
What was interesting about fossil plants in the Creatceous
You found conifers at 80N latitude. Magnolis in greenland.
How far north were dinosaurs in the cretaceous
They could be found in modern day northern germany. 80N latitude
What were the glacial deposits like in the creatceous?
Really rare
What does the lack of evaporites in the cretaceous indicate about the climate?
It is very humid.
Where are evaporites of cretaceous age found?
Central Texas
What is responsible for the hot climate of the Cretaceous?
Spatial distribution of the continents allows for currents to circulate the globe. Volcanic activity emits large amounts of CO2.
What is the cretaceous green house?
Volcanic activity created large amounts of green house CO2
Where is the best coal found and of what age is it? Why is it so much better?
In the western us created in the creaceous. It is less sulphur in it
What is interesting about the cyclothems of the Western US during the cretaceous?
They contain coal from swamps close to the coast
What is interesting about the black shales of the cretaceous age?
Most of the gas in our cars comes from cretaceous age black shales. The ones in Saudi Arabia and Mid east
What happened to the Appalachian mountains during the cretaceous?
Eroded flat
How thick is the cretaceous age strata on the east coast?
What is the lithology of the gulf coast like in the cretaceous?
Base of sandstone and conglomerate. Above that is limestone and shale. Base is fluvial. Above is marine. Indicating the Zuni transgression.
What new plants show up during the cretaceous?
Angiosperms. Magnolias, fig, oak, maple, walnut
what are the new mammals during the cretaceous?
Insectivores, Marsupials
Dinosaurs during cretaceous?
Peaked in Jurassic. Still doing well.
Pterosaurs during cretaceous?
Doing great. Largest ever found in TX of cretaceous age.
Plesiosaurs during cretaceous?
Doing well
Ammonites during cretaceous?
Doing well some got really big
Foraminifera during creataceous?
Doing fine. Single celled with Calcium Carbonate shell
Algaea during cretaceous?
Doing great. Gives us chalk in the rock record.
What are coccoliths?
Algae of cretaceous age
What is the index fossil of the cretaceous? What type of creature was it?
Rudists. bivalve
Echinoderms during cretaceous?
Really thriving
Insects during cretaceous?
Bees, crickets
What happened at the end of the Cretaceous?
Huge extinction event.
Who dies at the end of the cretaceous/
Dinosaurs, Pterosaurs, All marine reptiles except turtles and crocs, Ammonites, Rudists.
Why did the Cretaceous mass extinction occur?
Extraterrestrial impact?
What is the pstilence hypothesis
Germs killed the dinos
List the Epochs of the Tertiary Oldest to youngest
Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene
Lsit the Epochs of the Quaternary
Pleistocene, Holocene
What is the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny? When did it occur
African, Arabian collision. Continent to conteint collisin. Tertiary
What is the Circum pacific orogeny? When did it occur?
Is the ring of fire. Started in Tertiary.
What is on the Western Pacific plate and what orogeny caused it?
Mt. Fuji. Circum Pacfic orogeny
What is the Laramide orogeny?
Craeted the rockies
What is cordilleran volcanism?
Lots of volcanoes during the tertiary that created basalt flows
What are teh columbia river basalts? When did they occur?
During the Miocene there were huge fissures with lava spewing out onto the contient. 200000 cubic kilometers was extruded as laba onto the surface
What is the ROZA flow? When did it occur?
1 eruptive lava flow occured during tertiary.
What is San Juan Volcanoes? When did it occur/
Super volcano eruption during Eocene and Miocene
What happened to Flagstaff during the Tertiary? When specifically in the tertiary?
There was a huge eruption. In the pliocene
What is Grabens?
Grabens is the low part of a plateau valley system
What is Horst?
The plateau of a plateua valley sytem.
What happened to the rocky mountains during the Tertiary?
They were shed off
What is the Tejas cratonic sequence? When did it occur?
Transgressive event of the gulf coast region. Houses only gulf coat tertiary strata. Happened during Tertiary.
What happened to the eastern coast of NA during the tertiary
It was eroded and rejuvenated
What was the climate of the Paleocene and Eocene like?
Warm greenhouse climate. Found palm trees at 60N
What was the climate of the middle eocene to middle oligocene?
Climate falls on average 10C profound change in life. First Antarctic glacial episode
What is the climate of the early miocene?
Permanent antarctic iceap. Same climate we have today.
What are some of the factors that helped mammals survive the new cold climate of the Miocene?
Endothermic, Differentiated teeth, Insulgating hair or fur, Life birth created social order
What does live birth have to do with helping mammals survive the cold climate?
They protected their young.
When did the first primates appear?
What animals appear in the Paleocene(4)?
Primates, Squirrellike rodents, Edentates, Carnivores
What animals appear in the Eocene(6)?
Whales and porpoises, Bats, Mastadons, Deer, Giraffes, Eohippus
What is Eohippus?
The first horse. Really tiny. Has several toes
What animals appear in the Oligocene?
Dog and cat like mammals, Many modern taxa
When did apes and monkeys appear?
When did hominids and australopithecids occur?
Which epoch shows between 90-100% of the modern invertebrates of today?
What is evidence of continental glaciation of the Quaternary?
Erratic boulders, Striated polished rock surfaces, Till, U-Shaped Valleys
What can oxygen isotopes tell us about the climate?
We can look at the concentrations of H20 18 vs. 16 in the shells of sea creatures that have calcium carbonate shells. The Oxygen in there shells is in equilibrium with the most concentrated type of oxygen. Changes in 16 vs 18 show the glacial cycle.
What is isostasy?
Continents are uplifting because they dont have ice sheets on them anymore.
How did the sand hills of nebraska form?
During the quaternary there were glaciers extending into nebraska. The cold air from the glacier would race down the side really fast and blow the sands.
What is Albedo/
The measure of the surface reflectivity.
What was the climate of the middle east like 6-7 thousand years ago?
Lush and green.