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86 Cards in this Set

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What is the catastrophic view of geologic change?
Catastrophism is the theory that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope.
What is the uniform view of geologic change?
Everything happened slowly
Krakatoa
volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. massive explosions on August 26-27, 1883.
Vesuvius
east of Naples, Italy. Covered Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 AD.
Mt. Pelee
Active Volcano on St. Martinique in the caribbean. Explosion May 8, 1902 killed 30,000 people
Eldfell/Haimeay
A volcano in iceland that erupted in 1973
How many eathquakes are there anually
800,000
How many eathquakes in central america?
A lot
What caused the San Francisco fire in 1906
Earthquake caused Kerosene Lanterns to fall over onto wooden buidlings
What did the earthquake in 1989 do to San Francisco
Stopped the world series
What is in NW Wyoming?
Yellowstone National Park. There are a lot of faults here
What famous earhtquake happened in AK?
Second largest recorded earthquake in history measuring between 8.5-9.3 Lasted 7 minutes. Epicenter in college Fjord
How many people were killed in the chinese earthquake Shan Shu? Tang shu?
830,000. 500,000
How many people died in the massive Tsunami in 2004?
250,000
What is western california known for as part of the land?
Landslides
What did the climate of mediterranrean and the mideast used to be?
At one time it used to be tropical
What do Glaciers create?
U-shpaed valleys and as they melt sea level rises
What is our current Epoch?
Anthropocene
What is the Anthropogenic effect
Human induced changes
Subsidence
As we pump oil out from the gulf of mexico it aids in the subsistence of the continental shelf
What is Lake Powell and all but one of the lakes in tx?>
Artifical Reservoirs
Artificial Channeling?
Cutting by the meander bends like in the mississippi
Atmospheric Modification
Global warming, etc.
Fossils
The remains or traces of prehistoric life preserved in the rocks of sediment of the earths surface
What were the early ideas of the fossils?
Greeks said Animals climbed out of the ocean climbed up the mountains and died
What did Da Vinci say about fossils?
Fossils are as old as thee rocks . They were once part of an ocean system
Steno's Principles
1669 Italian came up with fundamental prinicpals used today
Superposition
In any succession of strate rock layers not later distrubed the oldest stratum lies at the bottom with younger on top
Original Horizontality
Because sedimentary particals settle within flkuids under the influence of gravity, most stratification originally must be horizontal; steeply inclined strate formed later
Lateral Continuity
layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions; in other words, they are laterally continuous. As a result, rocks that are otherwise similar, but are now separated by a valley or other erosional feature, can be assumed to be originally continuous.
What did the climate of mediterranrean and the mideast used to be?
At one time it used to be tropical
What do Glaciers create?
U-shpaed valleys and as they melt sea level rises
What is our current Epoch?
Anthropocene
What is the Anthropogenic effect
Human induced changes
Subsidence
As we pump oil out from the gulf of mexico it aids in the subsistence of the continental shelf
What is Lake Powell and all but one of the lakes in tx?>
Artifical Reservoirs
Artificial Channeling?
Cutting by the meander bends like in the mississippi
Atmospheric Modification
Global warming, etc.
Fossils
The remains or traces of prehistoric life preserved in the rocks of sediment of the earths surface
What were the early ideas of the fossils?
Greeks said Animals climbed out of the ocean climbed up the mountains and died
What did Da Vinci say about fossils?
Fossils are as old as thee rocks . They were once part of an ocean system
Steno's Principles
1669 Italian came up with fundamental prinicpals used today
Superposition
In any succession of strate rock layers not later distrubed the oldest stratum lies at the bottom with younger on top
Original Horizontality
Because sedimentary particals settle within flkuids under the influence of gravity, most stratification originally must be horizontal; steeply inclined strate formed later
Lateral Continuity
layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions; in other words, they are laterally continuous. As a result, rocks that are otherwise similar, but are now separated by a valley or other erosional feature, can be assumed to be originally continuous.
Principle of Fossil COrrelation
Index Fossils - used to define and identify geologic periods (or faunal stages).
Catastrophism. Who, what when?
Cuvier, early 1800s, A diversity of life was much greater came extinct now we have what is left
Catastrophism and Special creations
D'Orbigny, 1859. After extinction events new life forms show up in the rock record. 27 catastrophic event. Some sruvivors but also new creations
Descent by Evolution
Darwin 1859
Neptunism
Abraham Werner, 1787. Sea level used to be much higher. Because of thsi you get sea life forms in mountains crystal center of mountains come from the compounds in the sea.
Plutonism
James Hutton. 1785. Contrary to Neptunism. Observes volcanos earthquakes and geyusers. Beneath earth surface there is lots of heat Strate can be lifted to create mountains
Uniformitarianism
Charles Lyell 1830. The present is the key to the past.
What is a rock?
A consolidated aggregate of mineral grains particles of other rocks or organic materical
Igneous
Fire formed rocks
Extrusive Igneous
Formed from cooling lava. Characteristic of aphanitic or glassy texsture
Intrusive Igneous
Crystalline form cooling magma. Phaneritic texture
SEdimentary how formed?
Lithification
Detrital Sedimentary
Composed of solid particles that were once part of other rocks
Chemical SEdimentary
Derived from accumulation of biological or inorganical chemical percipitantsa
Utility of sedimentary rocks
Holds fossil fuel and history of the earth
What are the 4 terrestrial environments?
Desert, Glacial, Fluvial, Lacustrine
What is fluvial like?
River liek areas that create streams etc
Lacustrine
Pertaining to, produced by, or inhabiting a lake or lakes
What are the 5 marine environments?
Beach and bar, Deltaic, Shallow marinbe, Slope,Rise,Abyssal Plain, Pelagic
Pelagic
The open-ocean area. Sediment comes from plankton and dust from the air.
SEdimentary Facies
Fossilized depoistional environment
Transgressions and REgressions
Transgression is when in a sucession of strate evidence that sea level is rising. Regression is the opposite
Walthers Law
Johannes Walther - Reasoned that sedimentary facies within a vertical succession of strate must have been deposited in adjacent depositional environments
Cross-cutting relationship
Rock body thats cuts across another is younger
Principal of inclusion
Fragments of a rock body in another are older than the body that holds them
Anticlines
Strata that fold up
Synclines
Strate that fold down
Normal Fault
Where the hanging wall drops down in relation to the foot wall
Reverse Fault
Opposite of normal
Strike-Slip
Slide a-part like in san andreas.
Unconformities
Surface of erosion or nondeposition
Nonconformity
BEtween older igneous and young sedimentary
Angular Unconformities
Separates underlying tilted sedimentary from underlying strate oriented parallel to the unconformity surface
Disconformity
Unconformity between two sedimentary layers
Lithostratigraphic
Rock stratigraphy
What are the formal stratigraphic units from most specific to least
Formation, Member, Bed,Group, Supergroup
How are stratigraphic units named/
Binomial scheme. Both names capitalized first name is for locality or best exposure or some diagnositc characteristic Second name is unit designation or dominant lithology
Biozone
Fundamental unit of biostratigraphy. An interval of strate charactereized by index fossils
Facies Fossils
Fossils in facies
Range Zone
Defined by the total geologic range of a partical fossil group
Concurrent Range zone
Established by poutting the overlapping ranges of fossils that have different ranges