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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
According to the principle of uniformitarianism....
all of the planets formed from a uniform solar nebula.
The heat that caused melting in Earth's early history was supplied from which of the following events or causes?
a large impact event and solar heating
pg 7
What are the four gaseous ("Jovian") planets?
Neptune, Uranus, Jupiter, and Saturn
Living organisms have been on Earth for---- of Earth's history.
less than 50%
How old is Earth?
approximately 4.5 billion years old
Fusion reactions happen at a slower rate in bigger stars thatn in smaller ones. True or False
Ninety percent of the Earth is made up of which four elements?
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, and Silicon
pg 8
Our moon was formed by...
a collision of Earth with a Mars-sized protoplanet.
Does the Expanding Universe Theory predict that Jupiter is moving away from the Earth?
Nebulae are composed primarily of thes elements...
hydrogen and helium
The Lithosphere is made up of the...
Crust and Upper Mantle
The Asthenosphere is approximately...
700 km
What is the Moho?
It seperates the two parts of the lithosphere both the (crust and the upper mantle)
In the early Universt the only two elements were....
hydrogen and helium
Did the solar wind blow light, gaseous elements out of the inner solar system?
The Lithosphere is made up of the...
Crust and Upper Mantle
The Asthenosphere is approximately...
700 km
What is the Moho?
It seperates the two parts of the lithosphere both the (crust and the upper mantle)
In the early Universt the only two elements were....
hydrogen and helium
Did the solar wind blow light, gaseous elements out of the inner solar system?
The rate of sea-floor spreading...
is fast enough to account for the formation and destruction of oceans many times in Earth's history
Magnetic reversals...
Have occured many times, but not at regular intervals.
They reflect changes in direction of flow of molten iron in Earth's outer core.
It happens slowly as the poles wander and finally cross the equator.
Are recorded in strips of rock parallel to the mid ocean ridge.
When was the theory of plate tectonics developed?
At what type of plate boundary do the deepest earthquakes occur?
Divergent boundaries
Who proposed the theory of continental drift?
Alfred Wegener
Magnetic Declination is...
the angle of Earth's magnetci field lines measured with respect to geographic north
Is it true that Earth's magnetism changes through slight yearly shifting and occasional reversal of polarity?
The motion of a flowing material where hot matter rises from the bottom and cool matter sinks from the surface is called----.
Global Positioning can be used to measure-----.
the rates of plate motion
Subduction zones are a type of what plate boundary?
Convergent plate boundary
Earthquakes, Volcanism and rifting are all associated with....?
Divergent plate boundary
The age of the sea floor ...
Has been determined by radiometric dating.
Is never older than 200 million years.
correlates well with calculated rates of sea-floor spreading.
Has been confirmed by sea-floor drilling.
The boundaries between normally magnetized oceanic crust and reversly magnetized oceanic crust.
Magnetic anomalies are...
Places where the magnetic field strength is either greater or less than normal.
Normal if the atomic dipoles of local rocks match Earth's current north pole.
Found both on land and in the sea floor.
The sum of Earth's dipole fiedl and the local rock's atomic dipoles.
Wegener supported his Theory of Continental Drift with...
The good fit of the outline of the continents.
The matching of the distribution of similar fossils across oceans.
Paleoclimatic evidence of extreme climmate changes in some areas.
The matching of similar rock types and structures across oceans.
The oldest continental rocks are----- than the oldest oceanic rocks.
much older
The East Coast of North America is ----.
not a plate boundary
p 29
The Asthenosphere is ----.
hot and weak
What is Limestone made of?
Sodium has an atomic number of 11. How many electrons will the sodium ion Na+ have?
10 because in order for it to be slightly positive it has to have one less electron than protons.
pg 53
Chemical substances that have exactly the same chemical formula but different crystal structures.
Mica is a common example of a ----- silicate.
Large crystals with well-formed crystal faces tend to form when----.
Minerals have space to grow
Diamond is an example of what type of bonding?
The splitting of a mineral along planar surfaces.
p 65
Atomic Mass
Is the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom.
When cleaved, mica breaks through planes of
Interlayer cations.
Solid materials that do not possess an orderly arrangement of atoms are called----.
The two most common elements in the Earth's crust are
Calcium and Carbon
Which layer in the Earth does NOT transmit S waves?
Outer Core
How thick is the oceanic crust?
approximately 7 km
Who first proposed that the Earth acted as a large magnet whose field forces the needle of a magnetic compass to align north-south?
William Gilbert
What process is responsible for the recording of the magnetic reversals on the sea floor?
Thermoremanent magnetism
Why is the average elevation of the continents higher than the average elevation of the seafloor?
Because oceanic crust is composed of denser rocks than the continental crust.
How much of the Earth's magnetic field can be described by a simple dipole?
Where is the Earth's magnetic field generated?
In the Outer Core!
What is the approximate distance from the surface to the center of the Earth?
6400 km
What element makes up most of the Earth's core?
At what depth does the transition from the upper mantle to the lower mantle occur?
approximately 700 km
Approximately how often does the Earth's magnetic field reverse itself?
every 500,000 years
An increase in P-wave velocity and a change in rock type marks the boundry between the ---- and the ----.
Crust and the mantle
The boundary between the mantle and the core lies at a depth of approximately ---.
3000 km
The Geodynamo system powers the Earth's----.
magnetic field
Continental Crust beneath mountains can be up to ---- km thick.
70 km
What drives Plate tectonics?
Thermal convection!
How thick is average lithosphere?
100 km
Metamorphic rocks are commonly found where?
At convergent plate boundaries and near igneous intrusions.
What type of rocks form from crystallization of a magma?
Igneous Rocks!
When a magma is extruded onto the Earth's surface it will form igneous rock with---.
The smallest crystals
Sedimentary rock can be formed through---.
Igneous rocks are formed by---.
The solidification of molten rock.
The rock cycle is a result of interaction between these two Earth systems.
Climate and Plate Tectonics
The rock cycle is----.
A set of geologic processes by which rocks are formed from other rocks.
Bedrock is----.
Rock underlying loose surface material.
Volcanic rocks have smaller crystals than plutonic rocks because---.
Plutonic rocks cool slower than volcanic rocks.
The texture of a rock is its---.
Size, shape, and spatial arrangement of mineral grains.
A schist is an example of a --- rock
Contact metamorphic
Approximately how much basaltic lava is erupted each year at mid-ocean ridges?
3 cubic kilometers
A volcanic dome is most likely to form from a ---- lava?
Is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface.
Is molten rock above the Earth's surface.
Hig temperature lavas are less ---- than low temperature lavas.
A shield volcanoe is more likely to have what type of lava flow?
Basalt flow
Most of the world's active volcanoes are located around the edge of which ocean?
The Pacific Ocean
What type of volcanic deposit may contain diamonds such as the diamond mines of Kimberly, South Africa?
Which volcanic gas was emitted during the 1992 eruption of Mount Pinatubo increased the ozone loss in the atmosphere?
Is basaltic lava flow that has a ropy, folded surface.
Shiprock, New Mexico, is an example of a ----.
p 121-122
Phreatic explosion
Is the eruption of vast quantities of superheated steam.
What type of rock makes up the Columbia Plateau of Oregon and Washington?
Flood basalts
The Cascade volcanoes are associated with a ----.
convergent plate margin
Most of the Earth's active volcanoes occur on what type of plate boundaries?
Convergent plate boundaries
What volcanic flow moves the most rapidly?
Pyroclastic flows
What type of volcanic gases form aerosols in the upper atmosphere that can cause global cooling?
Sulfur dioxide
Almost all of the 25,000 people killed in the 1985 eruption of Nevada del Ruiz in Columbia were killed by----.
A large mudflow of volcanic debris
Are huge mudflows made up of wet volcanic debris.
Where do most basaltic magmas originate?
In the Earths asthenosphere
Are solidified fragments of volcanic material ejected into the air.
What type of lavas have high viscosities?
Silic/felsic lavas
Diamond and Graphite are examples of ----.
Where would you typically NOT find a composite volcanoe?
Oceanic hot spot
Heliocentric Model
Though that the heavenly bodies orbit the Sun. The model was discovered to be true because scientists watched to see how much of Venus and Mercury were illumintaed by the Sun.