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78 Cards in this Set

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methods of correlation
a.) same type of rocks
b.) same types of fossils
Geologic Time Scale
1. Eons 2. eras-consist of three
3.periods-eras are subdivided into periods, 4.epochs-divided into smaller units from periods
def of halflife
half of the nuclei in a sample to decay
most commonly used isotopes for dating
U238-PB206
U235-PB207
Th232-pb208
Ru87-Sr87
K40-ar40
C14-N14
precambrian
Theoried of orgin of life-something that is able to reproduce itself
def of marine sediments
it has the nutrients for life and thres continual circulation of liquids: early fossils found in marine rocks
Early paleozoic era
cambrian, ordovician, silurian periods
cambrian paleograhphy
extensive flooding of the cont. (transcontinental Arch)
Cambrian Biota
A.) Algal (carbonate) deposits
B.) Cambrian Biota
Ordovician Period
Earliest Fish, Corals, crinoids, blastoids, starfish, trilobites, "age of Graptolites" cephalopods
Silurian Period
Algae, coral, crinoids, trilobites, brachiods, pelecypods, gastropods (snails) cephalopods, euryterids, first primitive land plants
Devonian Period
1st good land plants, sea 1st primitive amphibians, wingless insects "age of fish"
Mississippian Period
"Age of Crinoids"- become index fossils, sea
Pennsylvanian Period
"Age of Insects" abundant plants in coal swamps amphibians very diversified, numerous fresh water fish
def of unconformable
there is an interruption in deposition, where you have a gap in time or an interruption
def of disconformity
the type of unconformity is parallel to the other rocks. You don't know how much time is missing.
def of angular unconformity
the rocks are lifted angularly
def of nonconformity
igneous and metamorphic rocks on top of sedimentary rocks
what does conformable mean?
no interruption of deposition
def of correlation
matching rocks of similar age from places that are separated
def of mesas
table-looking quite large
def of relative dating
placement of rocks in a relative order from which they formed
def of weathering
mechanical weathering is dominant
def of yardands
elongated ridge produced by wind blowing on surface
greatest amt. of erosion:
during storms
reminants from erosion
buttes, mesas, and yardangs
what produces tides?
gravity (attraction b/t the Earth, sun and the moon)
why extinction?
a meteorite hit the Earth, changed climate drastically, dust, dirt in the air.
wind deposits:
loess and dunes
Stream Transport Mechanisms
Solution Transport, Suspension Transport
All types of Orithschian
Iguanodon, Corythosaurus, Stegosaurus, Protoceratops, and Oviraptor
All types of Saurichia:
Brontosaurus, Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus, Gorgosaurus, Scolosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus Rex
5 types of dunes:
Barchans, Transverse dunes, Longitudinal dunes, parabolic dunes, and star dunes
Anatomy of a wave
crests, troughs, wave height, wave length, and wave period
Characteristics of Floodplain Deposits
Natural leaves, back swamps, vazoo tributaries, alluvial fans, deitas, and placer deposits
Characteristics of Infiltration Capacity
Intensity, and length of rainfalll, Prior wetness of soil, slope of land, and Vegetation cover
Cretaceous Period
Flowering plants, many new mammals, dinosaurs abundant, most modern types of marine invertabrates now evolved. many types of plants and animals become extinct. All of Dinosaurs become extinct
Definition of Laminar Flow
How the water flows within the channel. When the water flows in smooth paths.
Definition of Longitudinal Profile
starts with the head waters and ends with the mouth. Increases discharge.
Def of Infiltration Capicity
The amount of water that runs off the sheet flow. How much sinks in.
Defintion of Alluvium
any stream deposit
Defintion of Erosion
pick up things from bottom and carry it.
Velocity is very important
Dinosaurs
Battle of the bones, evol. of dinosaurs, Ornithischia, and Saurichia
Factors effecting the edges of shorelines:
Waves, Tides, Ocean Level Rise of Falll, Rock Types and Distribution, Geomorphic Features Already there before becoming a shoreline
Friction:
at the bottom, faster ones in the back catch up with the ones in the front
Jurassisc period
Jurassisc paleography, Jurrasic biota, first mammals, reptiles now adapted to land sea, and air. flying reptiles, ancestors of birds. Archeopterix, Proavis
Mesozoic Era
Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous Periods
Methods of wave erosion
Impact, Hydraulic pressure, Abrasion, and Solution
Running Water: Characteristics
Travel, Irrigation, Energy, and Flood Plains
Stream Erosion Mechanisms
Lifting, Abrasion, pottholes will result
Definition of Sheet Flow
When rain comes down it runs down hill
Things that control velocity
Gradient, Shape size and toughness of channel, Discharge, and Changes in downstream
Triassic Period
Triassic Biota, many conifers, amphibians, rule of reptiles, first dinosaurs, marine reptiles
Turbulent Flow
In an erratic way
Types of Alluvium Deposits
Channel Deposits
Water deposits
Alluvial fans, Bahadas, Playas
Water erosion cause:
pediment:low angle erosional surface in front of mountain front

Inselbergs: like icebergs erosional reminant of mountain range
Wave motion
The "wave form" moves, not the wave itself
Waves get taller:
they break and start moving forward
What are the characteristics of the Hydrolic Cycle?
Evaporation, condensation, Transportation, Precipitationo, Ground water, Transpiration, and Runoffs
What is the definition of Evapotranspiration?
Combination between evaporation and transpiration from plants.
What is the definition of Infiltration?
When the water runs off into the ground. (forming rivers)
What is the definition of a stream?
any channelized flow or any size.
What is the definition of the hydrolic cycle?
Unending circulation by the Earth's water supply powered by the energy of the sun.
Whats are Rills?
Tiny channels
def if Tides
A period of change in the elevation of the ocean's surface @ specific locations
def if deserts and winds
an area of low precipitation occupied by little vegetation
def of Braided Channels
a lot more sediment that the stream coud pick up and carry
def of Floodplain Deposits
where the stream will flood into
def of Meandering Channels
Stream deposits that are on the inside of bends.
def of Urbanization:
Paving, Building roads cities, etc. As you keep urbanizing, the greator the flood. The paving and building cut off the infiltration.
def of a Wave
Undulation of the water's surface
def of a shoreline
contacts between continents and oceans.
def of absolute dating
precise measurment of age
def of buttes
produced by winds blowing on rocks, weathering occurs
def of dunes
pile of sand, produced by wind blowing
def of loess
blanket of silt deposited from suspended load after thousands of years
5 principles of relative dating
original horizontality, superposition, cross-cutting, inclusions and fossil succession