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43 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between physical and historical geology?
Historical considers the chronology of events in the past and physical is about understanding processes and materials.
ANGULAR UNCONFORMITY
an uncomformity b/t nonparallel strata
NONCONFORMITY
uncomformity b/t sed rock/sed & non-sed rock
What is the mesosphere?
It is the mantle between the core and the asthenosphere. It is like silly puddy.
FAULTS
breaks in rock units along which movement has occurred
QUADRANGLE
a section of Earth's surface that is bounded by lines of latitude and longitude
DECLINATION
difference in degrees (like the difference b/t compass north and true north)
PHOTOREVISION
aerial photos used to discover changes on the landscape
BENCHMARK
permanent marker placed by the U.S. Geological Survey or Bureau of Land Management at the point indicated on the map (elevation)
RELIEF
difference in elevation b/t 2 points on a map
GRADIENT
measure of the steepness of a slope
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
constellation of 28 navigational satellites in 12-hour orbits about 12,000 miles above Earth
BEARING
compass direction along a line from one point to another
FLIGHT LINE
route flown by the photographing aircraft
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
study of how geologic units are arranged when first formed and how they are deformed afterward
GEOLOGIC MAP
shows the distribution of rocks at Earth's surface
FORMATIONS
mappable units that can be recognized and traced across the map area
MEMBERS
what formations are subdivided into
CONTACTS
boundaries b/t geologic units
GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION
a drawing of a vertical slice through Earth, with material in front removed
BLOCK DIAGRAM
combo of geologic map & cross section
ATTITUDE
orientation of a rock formation or surface
STRIKE
compass bearing of a line formed by the intersection of a horizontal plane and an inclined stratum, fault, fracture, or other surface
DIP
the angle b/t a horizontal plane and the inclined stratum, fault, or fracture
DIP ANGLE
inclination of the water line down from the horizontal plane
DISCONFORMITY
uncomformity b/t relatively parallel strata
NORMAL FAULTS
caused by tension
REVERSE FAULT
caused by compression
THRUST FAULT
reverse fault that develops at a very low angle and may be difficult to recognize
STRIKE SLIP FAULT
caused by shear
ANTIFORMS
upfolds or convex folds in rock layers (if oldest rocks in middle it is an anticline)
SYNFORMS
downfolds or concave folds (youngest rocks in middle than it is a syncline)
PLUNGE
angle b/t the fold axis and horizontal
MONOCLINES
folds that have 2 axial planes that separate 2 nearly horizontal limbs from a more steeply inclined limb
DOMES
large somewhat circular structures formed when strata are warped upward, strata oldest at the center
BASINS
large somewhat circular structures formed when strata are warped downward, youngest at the center
ALLUVIUM
gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited in floodplains, point bars, channel bars, deltas, and alluvial fans
DENDRITIC PATTERN
resembles branching of a tree
RECTANGULAR PATTERN
network of channels with right-angle bends that form a pattern of interconnected rectangles & squares
RADIAL PATTERN
channel flow outward from a central area, like the spokes of a wheel
CENTRIPETAL PATTERN
channels converge on a central point, often a lake or playa, at the center of a closed basin
ANNULAR PATTERN
set of incomplete, concentric rings of streams connected by short radial channels
TRELLIS PATTERN
resembles a rose trellis, where the main streams are long, parallel, and intersected at nearly right angles by their tributaries