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80 Cards in this Set

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What type of mountain is Mauna Loa
Volcanic Mountains
What type of mountain includes the Alps, Urals, Himalayas, and Appalachians?
Folded / Complex Mountains
What type of mounatin is due to vertical uplift of basement rocks?
Upwarped Mountainss
What type of mounatin is due to tensional stresses?
Fault-Block Mountains
Nearly horizontal subduction beneath western North America may help explain the formation of which mountain ranges?
Mountains of the Basin & Range Province and Middle & Southern Rockies
In what type of environment does plastic deformation predominate?
Deep in the crust where pressures and temperatures are high
In map view, these folds point in the direction that they plunge
Anticlines
Rocks stressed beyond this point will suffer permanent deformation. What do we call this point?
Elastic Limit
Which type of fold is due to vertical forces and has the oldest rocks in the center or interior of the fold?
Dome
Which type of fold is die to compressional forces and has the youngest rocks in the center or interior of the fold?
Syncline
Which category of faults has primarily vertical displacement?
Dip-Slip faults
What do we call the fault block that is situated above the fault plane?
Hanging wall / Hanging block
What type of fault is due to compression?
Reverse fault / Thrust fault
What type of fault has predominantly horizontal displacement?
Strike-Slip fault
What type of fault results when the hanging wall has moved down relative to the footwall?
Normal fault
Most of the earths major mountain belts are associated with which type of plate boundary?
Convergent plate boundaries
Which concept describes the earths crust as floating in gravitational balance upon the material of the mantle?
Isotasy
A mass of sediment that accumulates in trenches and becomes plastered onto the overriding plate.
Accretionary Wedge
The uplift of land after glaciers receed is an example of what mechanism?
Isotastic Adjustment
Name and describe the process which results in the formation of terranes.
Continental Accretion: crustal fragment is carried on oceanic plate to subduction zone, peeled off, and accreted onto the continent
What is the most common element in the earths crust?
Oxygen
Why isn't coal a mineral?
Coal is organic and minerals are inorganic
A solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly repeating three-dimensional pattern or lattice.
Crystalline solid
What is the most abundant mineral group and which 2 elements do all of its members contain?
Silicate Mineral Group: all the minerals in this group contain oxygen and silicon
Which are made of which?
Minerals
Rocks
Elements
Minerals are made of elements.
Rocks are made of minerals.
What do we call the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding?
Cleavage
What physical property is due to the presence of impurities and therefore not a good diagnostic property?
Exotic Color
WHich mineral subgroup includes minerals that are generally dark and heavy? (high specific gravity)?
Ferromagnesian Silicates
Halite and Gypsum are included in this informal mineral group?
Evaporite Minerals
Name the nonferromagnesian mineral that has perfect cleavage in one direction
Muscovite / Muscovite Mica
What physical property requires rubbing the mineral across a unglazed tile?
Streak
Whichmineral group effervesces with dilute HCL?
Carbonate Mineral Group
What is the weight of a mineral compared to an equal volume of water called?
Specific Gravity
What physical property describes the quality of light reflected off the mineral's surface?
Luster
Which mineral has a vitreous luster, cubic cleavage, and a salty taste?
Halite
What is the most abundant mineral in the earth's crust?
Feldspar
Glass, Obsidian, and Flint all display this style of breaking. What is it called?
Conchoidal fracture
What do we call the external geometric appearance of a mineral due to its internal arrangement of atoms?
Crystal form
Name the hardest mineral known. What is its hardness and whose scale is used?
Diamond, has a hardness of 10, and is determined on the Mohs' Scale of Hardness
Name two physical properties that calcite and dolomite share.
The ability to effervesce with dilute HCL (calcite readily, dolomite if powered) and rhombohedral cleavage
What are the two terms that are used to describe rocks that cool from erupted materials?
Vlocanic / Extrusive
Slower cooling of molten rock generally results in what?
Larger crystals
What feature of a rock refers to the size, shape, arrangement, and mutual inter-relationship among the individual grains?
Texture
This texture is a combination of two distinct crystal sizes/
Porphyritic texture
Rocks that are composed almost entirely of olivine and pyroxene are referred to as ?
Ultramafic in composition
Extremely quick cooling results in this texture which has no crystals and just unordered atoms.
Glassy
Which rock is aphanitic and mafic and is extruded at the mid-ocean redges?
Basalt
Name the texture which results from slow cooling, usually in a water rich environment.
Pegmatitic texture
Partial melting of a rock results in a magma with a composition that is more _______ than the rock being melted.
Felsic or granitic/rhyolitic or nonferromagnesian-rich or silica-rich
How and where does granite form?
Granite forms deep underground in the continental crust from the slow cooling of felsic magma
What is a vesicle?
A hole or void in a volcanic rock due to the presence of gas bubbles in thelava
Which igneous texture is indicative of two stages of cooling?
Porphyritic Texture
Which of the following igneous rocks is not aphanitic? Rhyolite, Diorite, or Basalt
Diorite. It is phaneritic
Which rock has the same texture as Rhyolite but is intermediate in composition?
Andesite
Name the process by which magmas of various compositions are generated from the early crystallization of some minerals.
Fractional Crystallization or Crystal Settling
What type of volcano is the smallest and and steepest?
Cinder Cones
How does a high silica content effect a magma's viscosity and eruptive style?
More viscous and more explosive
Name the type of volcano that includes Mount St. Helens, Mount Pinatube, and Mount Unzen.
Stratovolcano / Composit Cone
Which category of large pyroclastic materials is streamlined due to ejection in a molten state?
Bombs
What is the term for a volcanic vent that emits obly gases?
Fumarole
What type of volcano has a cataclysmic eruptive style?
Stratovolcanoes or Composite Cones
Which would be easier to run from, Pahoehoe or AA lava?
Aa lava
Name the type of volcano that includes Paricutin and SP Crater.
Cinder Cones
Which is the most abundant gas emitted during volcanic eruptions?
Water Vapor
What are the cones of Stratovolcanoes composed of?
Layers of both Andesitic lavas and Pyroclastic materials
Which volcanic hazard is also known as a Nuee Ardente or a glowing avalanche?
Pyroclastic flow
What do we call a volcanic eruption that erupts from a linear crack rather than a cylindrical vent?
Fissure eruption
Which type of plate boundary is associated with cataclysmic volcanism?
Convergent plate boundaries that involve subduction
What is the most likely place in California to experience a volcanic eruption?
Mammoth Mountain, Inyo Craters area
Which volcano erupted in 1815, causing "the year without a summer the following year"?
Mount Tambora
What 3 categories of materials are emitted from volcanoes?
gases, lava, and pyroclastics
What term is used to describe volcanic vents that extend very deep, possibly into the mantle?
Diamond pipes
The eruptive style of a volcano is primarily determined by what magma parameters?
Silica content, gas content, and temperature
The Columbia Plateau was formed by this type of flow. What is it called?
Flood Basalt
What is a volcanic mudflow called and why are they common on Stratovolcanoes?
Lahar Stratovolcanoes are often covered with snow or ice which melts as the molten rock approaches the surface
What is the erosional remnant that solidified in the central vent or pipe called?
Volcanic Plug or Volcanic Neck
Which intrusive Igneous structure often causes domes to form on the surface?
Laccolith
Which Plutonic body is the largest and often forms the roots of mountains?
Batholith
How did Crater Lake form? Why is it misnamed?
Mt. Mazama erupted, emptying a good portion of its magma chamber. The cone collapsed to form a Caldera which filled with water
Which Plutonic body is tabular and discordant?
Dike