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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the Earth's layers?
Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, Crust
What is the thickest layer of the earth?
What are the two different types of crusts?
Continental and Oceanic
What is the lowest layer of the earth made out of?
Iron and Nickel. Molten Outer Core with a Solid Inner Core.
Which is stronger- the asthenosphere or the lithosphere?
Describe the Asthenosphere.
hot and weak. Mostly Solid.
What is isostacy?
Relationship between crustal thickness and elevation
Why Are Some Regions Higher In Elevation than Others?
Thick blocks higher than thin blocks. Dense Materials are lower.
What are sedimentary rocks?
Rocks formed in normal surface environments.
What are the three types of rocks?
Sedimentary, Igneous, and Metamorphic.
How are Rocks Formed in Hot or Deep Conditions?
Explosive eruption of ash
, Eruption of lava, Solidification of magma at depth, Heating near magma, and Increased temperature and pressure
What is an Igneous Rock?
Rocks formed by Magma
What is an Metamorphic?
Rocks Changed by heat and pressure:
What Can Happen to a Rock?
Solidification, Melting, Weathering, Erosion and transport, Deposition, Deformation and metamorphism
What is a mineral?
Solid, Natural, Inorganic, Ordered internal structure and it has a Specific chemical composition
crystalline rock
Rocks composed of crystals.
Clastic Rocks
Composed of pieces
Properties to Distinguishing One Mineral from Another
Crystal form. Color, Luster, Cleavage,
Tests to Help Identify Minerals
Effervescence, Hardness, Streak, Density, Magnetism
What Controls a Crystal’s Shape?
Internal structure of halite
, Sizes and packing of atoms.
Crystal Lattice
Orderly arrangement of atoms
How Are Atoms Arranged in a Mineral?
Cubic, Tetrahedron, Octahedron
Independent Tetrahedra
Tetrahedra bond to other elements, not other tetrahedra
Single Chains
Tetrahedra bond together to form single chains
Double Chains
Tetrahedra bond to form double chains
Tetrahedra bonded together and with other elements in 3D framework
Color Index
% of mafic minerals
What happens when water is added to rocks?
Lowers Melting Temperature
How Does Water Get Into a Subduction Zone?
Hot water circulates in ridge; added in pores and in minerals
Resistance to Flow
High viscosity:
lava spreads out, Lower temp. and abundant silica chains
Low viscosity:
lava piles up, Higher temp. and fewer silica chains
Physical Weathering
Fracturing, Frost and Mineral wedging, Roots and other biologic activity
Chemical Weathering
Oxidation, Biological Reactions, Hydrolysis, Dissolution
Clast Sizes
Sand: Coarse, medium, fine
Clay and silt
Boulders, cobbles, pebbles