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32 Cards in this Set

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The philosophical or theological proposition that the presence of order in the universe is evidence for the existence of God.
Design Argument AKA: "Intelligent Design"
Argued that the passing of night and day, and seasons was evidence for existence of ordering intelligence. "Everything else is disposed in the best possible manner."
Diogenes of Apollonia
The first recorded statement of the Design Argument in its modern form was attributed to who?
Socrates (by Xenophon)
Argued that it was the regular movements of the stars and planets that first caused men to postulate the existence of gods.
Plato
The materialists who saw matter as a self-sufficient explanation for the ordering of the universe. They rejected teleology and any suggestion that the world had been created by a deity. "The world was made naturally, and without Design"
Epicureans
The first person to base the Design Argument on the watchmaker analogy was?
Marcus Tullius Cicero (Roman writer)
"When you view an image or a picture, you imagine it is wrought by art; when you behold afar off a ship under sail, you judge it is steered by reason and art; when you see a dial or water-clock, you believe the hours are showed by art, and not by chance; can you then imagine that the universe, which contains all arts and artificers, can be void of reason and understanding?"
Watchmaker Analogy (analogical reasoning)
Who used analogical reasoning to infer universal gravitation?
Newton
Who was a Hellenistic Jew noted for his knowledge of Greek philosophy? He made the architect analogy and supported Design Argument.
Philo
What was a powerful argument for Design - "earth with the central space assigned to it"
Geocentrism
The Design Argument is also found in "Rescuer from Error" by who?
Al-Ghazali
He was a medieval Jewish philosopher who wrote "Guide for the Perplexed" and said that "all things in the Universe are the result of design" that the best proof of Design lay in celestial motions.
Moses Maimonides
Maimonides rejected the possibility that astronomical phenomena could be explained by ______ law. "It is extremely improbable that these things should be the necessary result of natural laws, and not that of design."
Natural
Maimonides made the argument from _______, an intellectual fallacy.
ignorance
Design was one of ________'s five proofs for the existence of God. "Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are ordered to their end; and this being we call God."
Thomas Aquinas
A false method of reasoning
Intellectual Fallacy
By validating and admitting reason to Christian theology, Aquinas opened the floodgates for __________.
Natural Theology
Theology based upon reasoning from observable facts rather than from revelation.
Natural Theology
He argued that the study of nature was superior to revelation because there was no question of nature's authenticity or vagaries of interpretation.
Raymond of Sebonde
Two books have been given to man by God; namely, the book of the whole universe of created things, or the book of nature; and the other is the book of the Sacred Scriptures...the first book, that is the book of nature, cannot be falsified nor destroyed nor wrongly interpreted.
Raymond of Sebonde
In Opticks, he explicitly endorsed the standard Design Argument by invoking a "first cause" to explain the origin of order, beauty, and purpose in the world.
Newton
The first critical examination of the Design Argument was by the Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian in his book "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion."
David Hume
Hume's 5 Criticisms of the Design Argument
1 - It is based on a weak analogy
2 - There is an alternative hypothesis of natural order
3 - It invokes an anthropomorphic Deity that conflicts with the God known from revelation
4 - Few to any legitimate inferences concerning the nature of Deity can be drawn from the Argument
5 - The Design inference leads to an infinite regress
"If we see a house...we conclude, with the greatest certainty, that it had an architect or builder, because this is precisely that species of effect, which we have experienced to proceed from that species of cause."
Hume
The culmination of two centuries of British natural theology was the publication of "Natural Theology" by _______.
William Paley's
"Natural Theology" began with the ______ analogy.
Watchmaker analogy
"In crossing a heath, supposed I pitch my foot against a stone and were asked how the stone came to be there, I might possibly answer that for anything I knew to the contrary it had lain there forever; nor would it, perhaps, be very easy to show the absurdity of this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place."
Watchmaker Analogy by Paley
8th Earl of Bridgewater bequeathed eight thousand pounds sterling to promote natural theology.
Francis Henry Egerton
Bridgewater Treatise on geology was authored by ________.
William Buckland
"God created the heaven and the earth...in the beginning; but this beginning may have been an epoch at an unmeasured distance"
William Buckland
"I feel convinced that the argument of design has been greatly too much lost sight of in recent zoological speculations... overpoweringly strong proofs of intelligent and benevolent design lie all around us."
Lord Kelvin
Why can't Intelligent Design be construed or taught as a scientific hypothesis?
Because naturalism is essential to science