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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What mineral has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Quartz
Name the 2 carbonates:
1) Calcite
2) Dolomite
What is the most abundant mineral on the earth?
Feldspar (potassium and plagioclase)
What level is a fingernail scratch on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
2.5
Bonding that involves the transfer of electrons:
Ionic bonding (i.e. sodium/chlorine)
What mineral is used to make sheetrock?
Gypsum
What are the four criteria used to define a “mineral”?
Naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid, definite chemical composition
What mineral is a less expensive substitute for topaz because of its similar golden-yellowish color?
Citrine
What mineral has a hardness of 8 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Topaz
Streak works best for what type of minerals?
Metallic minerals
How do mineral crystals form?
1)Crystallize from cooling magma
2)Precipitate from solution
How can you tell the difference between real gold and “fool’s gold”?
Use streak property
– Real gold has a gold streak
– Pyrite has a black streak
Name the 5 Nonferromagnesian silicates:
1) Potassium feldspar
2) Plagioclase feldspar
3) Quartz
4) Muscovite
5) Clay mineral group
Mineral that is used in making fertilizer:
Dolomite
To which of the following groups do most minerals in the Earth's crust belong?
Silicates
What mineral has a hardness of 2 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Gypsum
Minerals used in lotions, cosmetics, drilling mud, candy bars, and Kaopectate:
Clay minerals
Particle with no charge that resides in the nucleus:
Neutron
Which group of rock-forming minerals is always dark in color?
Ferromagnesian silicates
What level is glass on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
5.5
What mineral is commonly used to make cement in the construction industry?
Calcite
What is the least reliable indicator of a mineral's identity?
Color
Mineral that peels into thin, plastic-like sheets when it is broken:
Biotite
What Ferromagnesian silicate mineral is used in making computer chips?
Olivine
What mineral has a hardness of 3 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Calcite
What is the best way to identify a mineral?
By its chemical composition
Minerals that are useful for industrial-made ceramics; not for decorative use:
Feldspars
What mineral has a hardness of 6 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Orthoclase
What are the two most common elements in the earth's crust?
Silicon and oxygen
Appearance of a mineral in reflected light:
Luster (usually used for metallic and nonmetallic)
Bonding that results from the sharing of electrons:
Covalent bonding (i.e. carbon atoms are bonded in diamonds)
Rock-forming minerals that contain either iron, magnesium, or both:
Ferromagnesian silicates
What gemstone is formed from the mineral olivine?
Peridot
How many minerals are used to manufacture the typical computer?
66
What mineral has a hardness of 9 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Corundum (ruby)
What versatile mineral is used to make glass, optical devices, and watches?
Quartz
Name the 4 Ferromagnesian silicates:
1) Pyroxene group
2) Amphibole groupe
3) Biotite
4) Olivine
All silicates must contain what 2 things:
1) The element silica
2) Oxygen
Positively charged, reside in the center of the atom called the nucleus:
Proton
Since it peels into thin, flexible sheets (almost like plastic wrap), ____ is often is used to insulate electrical wiring.
Biotite
What mineral has a hardness of 1 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Talc
List the 4 categories of rock-forming minerals:
1)Ferromagnesian silicates
2)Nonferromagnesian silicates
3)Carbonates
4)Sulfates
What kind of bond takes place in about 90% of all minerals?
Ionic bond
The color of a mineral when it is rubbed across a piece of unglazed tile:
Streak
What mineral family does gypsum belong to?
Sulfates
What mineral has a hardness of 5 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Apatite
What determines the bonding properties of an element?
The number of electrons in the outer shell.
How many minerals are there on Earth?
3,600
What mineral has the same properties as biotite, but does not contain iron or magnesium?
Muscovite
Rock-forming minerals that are all light in color:
Nonferromagnesian silicates
Name the Sulfates:
Gypsum
What mineral has a hardness of 4 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Fluorite
What mineral is easily scratched by a fingernail?
Gypsum