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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a nucleus
the dense central portion of an atom containning protons and neutron
what are electrons
negatively charged that orbit around the nucleus
what determine the electricial charge of an atom
the total number of protons and electorns
what is the atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus
what is the atomic weight
the combined number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
what is the mass of electrons and how do they contribute to atomic weights
electron have no mass and do not contribute to the atomic weights
what do protons and neutrons have in common
they are both equal in mass
what is an element
all the atom with the same number
what are isotopes
the different form of a particular element that have a variable number of neutron
List in order from the greatest to the least the elements composition of the earth's crust
Oxygen (O) 46.1%
Silicon (Si) 27.7%
Aluminum(Al) 8.3%
Iron (Fe) 5.4%
Calcium (CA) 4.9%
Magnesium (Mg) 2.6%
Sodium (Na) 2.2%
Potassium (K) 1.9%
What is a compound
a substance made up of atom of two or more elements
how are compound produce
atom must be held together by some type of bond
What are ions
atoms with electrical result from atoms having unequal noumber of protons and electrons
What are the two types of ions and what do they combined to form
they are cations and anions, and they form compounds
what is a ionic bond
it is one atom gives up an electron to another atom
What are covalent bond
two atoms shared a pair of elctrons
what good solvent dissolve many solids
what is a dipole
a molecule that has a positive charge on one side and a negative on the other side

EX. Water
what are minerals
naturally occurring crysilline substance with specific physical and chemical properties
what is hydrosphere
surface water (lakes, ocean, etc.)
what is cryosphere
water stored as ice
what is atmosphere
water vapors
what is a biosphere
water in plants and animal tissue
how does precipitation occurs over land
evaporate, in streams and rivers, water scep into the ground
what % of the global water is ocean water
glaciers is what % of the fresh water
what is the zone of aeration
layer of soil or rock which water sceps
What is the zone of saturation
a subsurface layer where pore are filled with water
what is the water table
boundary between the zone of aeration and saturation
what is permeability
a measure of the size of the pores and how well they are connected
what is aquifer
layer of rock that transports water
what is aquitard
layer of rock that prevent the transport of water
what is discharge
when water is removed from the zone of saturation it drops
what is recharge
when water is added to the zone sat. it rises
what is a spring
ground water flows and scep out of the ground
what is a water well
water that is pumped out of the ground
what is a water well
water that is pumped out of the ground
what is artesian wells
ground water under natural flow