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28 Cards in this Set

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autonomous regions
territories within Russia and China designated as the homelands of indigenous peoples
Bolsheviks
a faction of communists who came to power during the Russian Revolution
capitalists
a wealthy minority that owns the majority of factories, farms, businesses, and other means of production
chernozem
black, fertile soils of the region stretching south from Moscow toward the Black and Caspian seas
command economy
an economy in which government bureacrats plan, locate, and manage all production and distribution
communism
an idealogy, based largely on the writings of the German recolutionary Karl Marx, that calls on workers to unite to overthrow capitalists and establish an egalitarian society where workers share what they produce
communist party
the political party that rules the former Russian Empire from 1917 to 1991
czar
title of the ruler of the Russian Empire; derived from the word "caesar," the title of the Roman emperors
glasnost
"openness;" an opening up of piblic discussion of social and economic problems, which occurred in the Soviet Union under Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s
Group of Eight (GS)
an organization of highly undustrialized countries: France, the United States, Britain, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada, and Russia
internal republics
more than 30 ethnic enclaves in Russia whose political status and relationshop to the Russian state are continuously being renegotiated republic by republic
marketization
the process of developing a free market economy
Mongols
a loose confederation of nomadic pastoral people centered in eastern Central Asia, who by the thirteenth century established by conquest an empire stretching from Europe to the Pacific
nonpoint sources of pollution
diffuse sources of environmental contamination, such as untreated automobile exhaust, raw sewage, or agricultural chemicals that drain from fields into the urban water supplies
oblasts
the provinces of Russia
oligarchs
people who acquired great wealth during the privatization of Russia's resources, who use that wealth to excercise power
perestroika
a restructuring of the Soviet economic system in the late 1980s in an attempt to revitalize the economy
permafrost
permanently frozen soil a few inches or feet beneath the surface
privatization
the sale of industries formerly owned and operated by the government to private companies or individuals
Russian Federation
Russia and its political subunits, which include 30 internal republics and more than 10 so-called autonomous regions
serfs
persons legally bound to live on and farm land owned by the lord
Slavs
a group of farmers who originated between the Snieper and Vistula rivers, in modern-day Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus
socialism
a social system in which the production and distribution of goods are owned collectively, and political power is exercised by the whole community
steppes
semiarid, grass-covered plains
taiga
subarctic forests
thermal pollution
the return of unnaturally hot water to the environment, as by industrial processes or hydro and nuclear power plants
tundra
a treeless area between the ice cap and the tree line of arctic regions, which has a permanently frozen subsoil
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
the nation formed from the Russion empire in 1922 and dissolved in 1991