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37 Cards in this Set

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science of water, its global circulation, distribution and properties, specifically water at and below Earths surface.
science of...
Stream-related processes
the process of dislodging, dissolving or removing surface material by wind or water
wind water
move to new locations
dropping of particles
term for clay, silt and sand transported by running water
base level
level below which a stream cannot errode a valley furthur
the lowest level is sea level
dynamic equilibrium
a balance among force, form and process
drainage basin
spatial geomorphic unit occupied by a river system
where the water drains to..
drainage divides
ridges or dividing lines that control into which basin precipitation drains
catchment area of a drainage basin
water that moves downslope ina thin filmas overland flow, not concentrated in channels larger than rills
continental divides
ridge or elevated area that determines the drainage patter of drainage basins
drainage pattern
an arrangement of channels that is determined by slope, differing rock resistance, climatic and hydrologic variablity, relief of the land, and structural controls imposed by the landscape
measured volume of flow in a river that passes by a given cross section of a stream in a given unit of time
hydraulic action
work of water moving materials through the exertion of pressure and shearing force
process whereby rock particles grind and carve the streambed
dissolved load
materials carried in chemical solution in a stream derived from minerals such as limestone and dolomite, or from soluble salts
in stream transport
suspended load
fine particles held in suspension in a stream. The finest particles are not deposited until the stream velocity nears zero
bed load
coarse materials that are dragged alonge the bed of the stream by traction or by rolling and bouncing motion of saltation, involved particles to large to remain in suspension
a type of sediment transport that drags coarser materials alonge the bed of the stream
the transport of sand grains by stream or wind, bouncing the grains along the ground in assymetrical paths
the general building up of land surface because of deposition of material
braided stream
a stream that comes to a maze of interconnected channels laced with excess sediments. braiding often occurs with a reduction of discharge that affects a streams, transportation ability or an increase in sediment load.
meandering stream
the sinuou, curving pattern common to graded streams, with the outerportion of each curve subjectedto the greatest erosive actionand the inner portion recieving sediment deposits
undercut bank
a steep bank formed along the outer portion of a meandering stream; produced by lateral, erosive, undercutting action of a stream.
point bar
the inner portion of a stream meander that recieves sediment fill
oxbow lake
a lake that was formerly part of the channel of a meandering stream; isolated when a stream eroded its outer bank, forming a cuttoff through the neck ofa looping meander
the drop in elevation from a stream's headwaters to its mouth, ideally forming a concave slope
graded stream
a condition in a stream of mutual adjustment between the load carried by a stream and the related landscape through which the stream flows, forming a state of dynamic equilibrium among erosion, transported load, deposition and the stream's capacity.
the point at which the longitudinal profile of a stream is abruptly broken by a change in gradient; for example, a waterfall, rapids or cascade
a low-lying area near a stream or channel, subject to recurrent flooding; alluvial deposits gnerally mask underlying rocks
natural levees
long, low ridges that occur on either side of a river in a developed floodplain; depositional by productsof river-flooding episodes
alluvial terraces
level areas that appear as topographic steps above the stream, created by a stream as it occurs in arid landscapes where streams are intermittent
a depositional plain formed where a river enters a lake or ocean; named after the triangular shape of the greek letter delta
a high water level that overflows the natural banks along any portion of a stream
a graph of stream discharge over a period of time ata specific place on a stream. The relationship between stream discharge and precipitation input is illustrated on the graph