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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the purpose of a 'greenbelt' and give an area in which it is being used
A greenbelt is an area of mainly open land, surrounding a city, upon which development is severely restricted in order to limit city growth or provide access for recreation. Examples include Ottawa (Canada), London (UK), Dunedin (New Zealand)
Give reasons why there is need for new housing across the UK (and MEDCs in general)
- People live longer therefore fewer houses available
- More one parent families
- More people owning second homes
- Increasing population
- Inward migration
Give reasons why people move from the countryside into shanty towns in LEDCs such as Cairo
Push and pull factors
- harsh life in rural (low pay, natural disasters, diseases, poor standard of living)
- perceived better life (access to health, education, and amenities, more jobs, better wage)
What are "self help" schemes
Government or charity schemes designed to help shanty towns by giving migrants access to basic materials such that they can build their own houses or provide services to others.
The recent China large scale scheme
Two year scheme from 2005, which has rebuilt over 8 million square meters of shanty towns in the North East province, involving 840,000 residents. All now have access to safe water, heating systems and electricity. Came at a cost of around 2.5 billion US dollars
Greenfield land = ???
A piece of undeveloped land, either currently used for simply agriculture or just left to nature
Brownfield land = ???
Area that has been previously developed which is no longer needed e.g. a paved lot or the site of a demolished building
Terms regarding "land use"
Developed/undeveloped, open space/enclosed area, recreational/industrial/residential/commercial, transport/tourist/government facilities and... a lot more
The Key difference between developing on greenfield or brownfield land
Greenfield = nice environment but can lead to damaged habitats and further development. Brownfield = Makes use of unused land but can be expensive (demolishing of buildings and disposal of chemicals and waste)
Example of effect of building on brownfield land
Bluewater shopping scheme although built on quarry and left greenbelt area around unaffected it has encouraged development. Now there are plans for more than 20,000 new homes around the area.
Causes of desertification
Overgrazing (most common), deforestation, cultivation of marginal lands (high risk of crop failure) and salinization from poor irrigation
Describe the process of desertification
Lack of vegetation leaves soil exposed to elements. This leads to soil erosion through abrasion of the wind. Water ends up evaporating from the surface or percolating directly into the water table bringing nutrients with it. The soil becomes too infertile and dry to support life.
Simple way of stopping desertification
Bunding - using lines of stones across a slope to stop water run-off (Used in Yatenga)
Explain how poor irrigation leads to salinization
Salinization usually occurs due to excessive water application. Water evaporated and absorbed by plants leave behind salty deposits. (Basic)In order to reduce these deposits more water is needed to leach out the salts and bring them into the water table. However this can cause the water table to rise. The water table's salty water therefore has to be drained to prevent them reaching the plants. However in a high water table evaporation can draw up the water and salts making the soil even more salty (Advanced)
What was the Green Revolution?
A plant engineering program where new strains of crops were produced to increase yields. First developed in Mexico it spread to the Philippines, then India, then across SE Asia.
Good effects of the Green Revolution
-World's rice harvest doubled
-Farmer's with increased yield obtained higher incomes
-New industries producing fertilizers and pesticides developed in rural areas providing jobs
-Encouraged technological advances
-HYVs have led to a more varied diet
The bad things about the Green Revolution
- It was costly as the HYVs required fertilizers and pesticides. More chemicals meant food chains often got involved.
-Farmers who could not afford to maintain or buy the HYVs faced larger competition, often resulting in them being poorer
-Due to larger yields people were being replaced by machinery