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19 Cards in this Set

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Human Geography
Study of spatial organization of human activity & of people's relationships with their environments
Space
(Distance, Area, Volume)
Infinite 3D Area in which objects have relative coordinates to each other

Types:
1) Concrete space- actual geographic space in real world
2) Abstract space- geographic model/representation of real world (approximated space for maps/models)
Place
Locations within space
Specific geographic settings with distinctive physical, social, & cultural attributes
-Characteristics of space depend on their location-
Region
Territory that encompasses many places
Natural increase
Rate of population change based on births and deaths
Maquiladora
Export process to create employment opportunities in Mexico by the U.S. (take advantage of cheap labor)
- Free trade areas; transient population; difficult work but great pay -
Land invasion/appropriation
When Mexican citizens take someone elses land when they are away for a long time (ex. Jail)
Gentrification
Great opportunities to recreate cities
Happens in central locations with low property values
Scale
Tangible partitioning of space/time within which different processes are played out
Globalization
Increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, & cultural change
Why Geography Matters
Interconnectedness of place
Scale & process
Globalization:
Regional & Ethnic identity
Value of & need for community
Processes respond to variations in place & space
Processes are manifest in place & space
Minisystems
Society with a single cultural base & a reciprocal social economy (ex. trading goods)
Hearth Areas
Geographic settings where new practices have developed & from which they have spread
First Agricultural Revolution
(9000-7000 B.C.)
Hunting & Gathering -> Agrarian minisystems
Tech:
Fire
Grindstones
Food Prep. & Storage
Slash & burn agriculture
Livestock domestication
Slash-and-burn agriculture
Cut down plants, burn stubbles to serve as fertilizer, move to a new crop field
Geographic Preconditions of the 1st agricultural revolution
Natural food supplies,
Diverse terrain (4 plant variety),
Rich soils,
Plentiful rainfalls
Implications of 1st agricultural revolution
Higher population
More organized social systems
Specialization in non-agricultural crafts
Barter-and-trade economies
Cities & Agriculture of the 1st agricultural revolution
Jericho (city in Jerusalem)
Population of 3000 at its peak
Evidence of highly advanced forms of hunting, gathering, and fishing
City came first before wheat
World Empire
Groups of minisystems absorbed into common political system, but retain fundamental cultural differences