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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
describes the way in which people are spread out across the Earth's Surface
describes the number of people living in a given area, usually a square kilometer.
Distribution and density are mainly affected by:
1.)Relief Factors
5.)Natural Resources
6.)Water Supply
7.)Natural Routes
8.)Economic Factors
9.)Political Factors
10.)Social Factors
Population Growth
is the greatest in developing countries like Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Continents with the slowest increase in population are developed continents like Europe, the former USSR, North America and Australia.
Population Change
depends on the birth rate, daeth rate, and migration.
Natural increase
is the difference beetween birth rate(average number of births per 1000 people) and the death rate.

Birth rate - Death rate = natural increase.
Stage 1 of the Population Growth Rate
Birth and death rate are high (amazon rainforest)
Stage 2 of the population Growth Rate
Birth rate is high, death rate falls rapidly
Stage 3 of the Population Growth Rate
Birth rates fall, death rates keep falling
Stage 4 of the Population Growth Rate
Birth and death rate are low
Life Expectancy
the number of years that the average person born in a certain place is expected to live.
Calculating the dependency rate
Non-economically active / economically active X 100
Optimum population
is the number of people living in a given area that can maximize the use of resources.
when the number of people in a living country or region is too many for the resources available.
when resources available are too numerous for the people living there.
is a place where people live.
Criteria to classify settlement
Location (site and situation)
Shape (patterns)
Major use (function)
Position/rank (hierarchy)
describes the point at which the town is located. The choosing of the initial site is based on water supply and resources.
describes where the settlement is located in relation to surrounding features. The situation determines whether the town will grow and become a larger town or whether it will remain small.
Settlement types
Settlements are divided into rural and urban.
Rural Settlement
Isolated building, Hamlet, Village or small market town
Urban Settlement
Larger industrial town, city, conurbation., capital city.
Dispersed, Nucleated, Linear or sreet, Planned are the four different kinds of patterns and shapes for villagese
an area of adverse physical difficulty where natural resources are insufficient to support more than a few people.
when several buildings are grouped together for defensive purposes, social and economic reasons.
Linear or Street
where buildings are strung out along a line of communication (road)
suburbanized villages surrounding large towns. Developed land (Dutch Polders)
Function of a settlement
The function of a settlement is the main service offered in the settlement. Some settlements are multifunctional and offer different services.
Hierarchy refers to the arrangments of settlements within a given area (country, county) in an 'order of importance'
The sphere of influence
also called the market area, is the area served by a particular settlement. The area of influence depends upon the size of the sevices of a town and the surrounding settlements. Transport facilities available and level of competition
Threshold population
is the minimum number of people needen for a service to survive.
is the maximum distance people are prepared to travel to obtain a service
an increarse in the proportion of living in towns and cities
People move to urban areas for:
1.)more and better-paid jobs
2.)nearness to places of work an entertainment
3.)better housing, services and shopping facilities
Urban land use models
1.) (concentric model)Burgess: its based in the city of Chicago where the CBD is in the middle and the town grows outwars the CBD. its based on the age of houses and the wealth of their occupants.

2.) (sector model)Hoyt: its a model proposed after the development of public transport. Its divided in sectors alongside main transport routes into and out of the city.
Land values and spaces
land values are higher in the CBD where the competition for land is the greatest. it decreases towards the urban boundary.
as towns develop, the oldest building are usually near to the city centre.
the CBD is the easiest place to reach from all parts of the city thanks to the main routes from the suburbs.
Wealth and inhabitants
people with lower income tend to live in cheaper housing near the CBD.
Growth of cities
In 1800 only 3 per cent of the world’s population lived in urban areas, 29 per cent in 1950 and it is predicted to exceed 50 per cent by the year 2006.
Urban Growth push factors
Push factors: (why people leave the countryside)

1.)Lack of employment

2.)Pressure on the land (division of land between sons)

3.)Overpopulation because of high birth rates

4.)Starvation from either too little output for the people of the area or crop failure

5.)Limited food production

6.)Farming is hard work with long hours and little pay

7.)Machinery replaces workers

8.)Natural disasters like drought

9.)Lack of services

10.)Extreme physical conditions
Urban Growth Pull Factors
Pull factors: (why people move to the city)

1.)Job opportunities

2.)Better housing and higher quality house

3.)Schools, medical treatment and entertainment

4.)Night life

5.)More reliable sources of food

6.)Religious and political activities can be carries safely
is the movement from one place to another.
Voluntary Migration
is the free movement of migrants looking for an improved quality of life and personal freedom
Forced Migration
is when the migrant has no personal choice but has to move due to natural disaster or to economic or social imposition
are people who have been forced to leave their country for fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, politics, civil wars or due to environmental disaster.