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285 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
agricultural density
the number of farmers per unit area of farmland
arithmetic density
the total number of objects in an area
base line
east-west lines
cartography
the science of mapping
concentration
the extent of a feature's spread over space
connections
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
contagious diffusion
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
cultural ecology
the geographic study of human -environment relationships
cultural landscape
a combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features
culture
the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people
density
the frequency with which something occus in space
diffusion
the process by which a characteristic spreads across space form one place to another over time
distance decay
when contact dimishes with increasing distance and eventually disappears
distribution
arrangement of a feature in space
environmental determinism
a appreach which focused on how the physical environment cuased by social development
acid deposition
sulfur oxides and notrogen oxides emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-wehre they combine with oxygen and water to form fulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth's surface
acid precipitation
conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog
active solar energy systems
solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
agribusiness
comercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in teh foo-drocessing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
agricultural revolution
the time when humans first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied on hunting
agriculture
the effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
air pollution
concentration of trace substances at a greater level thatn occurs in adv. air
animate power
power supplied by people/animals
animism
belief that objects or natural events have a descrete spirit and conscious life
annexation
legally adding land area to a city in the U.S.
apartheid
laws in South Africa that physically separated different races into diff. geographic areas
autonomous religion
a religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally
balance of power
conditon of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
balkanization
process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
balkanized
small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states bc it was inhabited by many ethnicities w/ complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other
basic industries
industiries that sell their products or services primarily to consumeers outside the settlement
biochemical oxygen demand (BODO
amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic wast; a measure of water pollution
biodiversity
the # of species within a specific habitat
biomass fuel
fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
blockbusting
process by which real estate agensts convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices bc of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood
boundary
invisible line that mard sthe extent of a state's territory
brain drain
large-scale emigration by talented people
branch (of a religion)
a large and fundamental division within a religion
break-of-bulk point
a location where transfer is posible from one mode of transportation to another
breeder reactor
a nulcear power plant that creats in own fuel form plutonium
British Recieved Pronunciation (BRP)
te dialect of english associated iwth upper-class britons living i the London area and now considered standard in the UK
bulk-gaining industry
an industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs
bulk-reducing industry
industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
business services
services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
caste
the class or distinct hereditary order into whcih a Hindu is assigned according to religious law
census tract
an area delineated by the ux bureau of the census for which statistics are published
census
a complete enumeration of a pop.
CBC (central buisness district)
the area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered
central place theor
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact atha settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
central place
a mardet center fo the exchange of services by people attaracted form the surrounding area
centripetal force
an attitude that tends to unify peole and enhance support for a state
cereal grain
a grass yielding grain for food
chaff
husks of grain separated form the seed by threshing
chain migration
migration of people to a specific location bc relatives or member of the same nationality previously migrated there
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
a gass used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers
circulation
short-term , repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
city-state
a soverign state comprisng a city and its immediate hinterland
clustered rural settlement
a rurual settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
colonialism
attempt by one country to establis settlements and to impose its polictical, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
colony
a teritorry that is legall tied to a soverign state rather than completely independent
combine
a machine that reaps, threshes, and claeans grain while moving over a field
commercial agriculture
agriculture undertaken primarily to generate product for sale off hte farm
compact state
a state in which the distance form the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
concentration
the spread of something over a given area
concentric zone model
a model of the internal structure of cities ih which social gorups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
conservation
the sustainalbe use and management of a natural resouce, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced
consumer services
businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
contagious diffusion
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a pop.
cosmogony
a set of religous belefs concerning the origin of the universe
cottage industry
manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the INdustrail Revoluton
council of gov.
a cooperative agency consisteing of representatives of local goxs in a metropolitan area in the US
counterurbanization
net migration form turban to rual areas in more developed countries
creole or crolized lang.
a lang. that results form the mixing of a colonizer's lang. with the indigenous language of the peole being dominated
crop rotation
the practice fo rotation use of diff. fields form crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
crop
grain or fruit gathered form the field as a harves t during a particular season
crude birth rate
the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the siciety
crude death rate
the toal number of deaths in a year for ever 1,000 alive in the society
custom
the frequent repititon of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people persforming the act
demographic transition
the process of change in a sociey's pop. form a conditon of high cude birdthe and death rates and low rate of natual increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natual incarease and a higher totla pop
demography
the scientific study of pop characteristics
denomination
a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and admiistrative body
density gradient
the change in density in an urban area form teh center to the periphery
dependency ratio
the number of people under the age of 15 and over 64 compared to the numer of peopl eactive in the labor force
desertificaton
degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, promarily because of human actons like excessive crop planting, animal grazing and tree cutting
development
a precoess of improvement in the material conditons of the people throuhg diffusion of knowledge and technology
dialect
a regionaly variety of a lan. distinguished by vocab., spelling, and pronunciation
diocese
the basic unit of geopraphic organization in the Roman Catholic Church
dispersed rual settle ment
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
double cropping
harvesting twice a year form the same field
doubling time
the nubjmer of years deede dto double a pop. assumeing a constant rate of natural increase
ebonics
dialect spoken by some african-americans
economic base
a communty's collection of basic industries
ecumene
the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
edge city
a large node of office and retail activiteies on the edge of an urban area
elongated state
a stated with a long, narrow shape
emigration
migration form a location
enclorure movement
the precess of consolidatine small landholdings in to a smaller number of larger farms in England during hte 18th century
epidemiological transition
distinctive causes of death in each state of the demographic transition
ethnic cleansing
process in which more powerful ethinic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
ethnice religion
religion with relatively concentrated spatioan distribution whose proiciples are liekly to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
ethnicity
identity with a group of peopl ethat share distincet physical and mental traints als a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend among peple form one area to another in a snowballing process
extinct lag.
a lang. that was once used by peole in daily activities but is no longer used
federal state
an internal organization of a state that allocated most powers ot units of local gov.
ferrous
metals, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel
filtering
process of change in the use of a house, form single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
fission
splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
floodplain
area subjet to flooding during a given number of years accoring to historical trends
folk culture
culture taradionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
forced migration
premanent vomement compelled usually by cultural factors
fordist production
form of mass production in wihc each worder is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
formal region
area in which everyone shared sin one or more distinctive characteristics
fossil fuel
enery source formed form the residue of palntas and animals buried millions of years ago
fragmented state
stae that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
franglais
term used by French for english words that have entered the french lang
frontier
a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises politial control
function (or nodal) region
an area organized aourn a node or focal point
fundamentalism
literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion
fusion
creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium
Gender empowerment measure
compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and politial decison making
Gender-Related Development Index
compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
gentrification
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
geothermal energy
energy form steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks
gerrymandering
process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting hte party in power
ghetto
a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited ony by Jews; now used to denote a seciton of a city in which member of any minority group live
GIS
a computer system that sotres, organizes, analyzes, and displays geopgraphic data
globalizaton
actions or processes that involve the entire world adn result in making someting worldwide in scope
global positioning system (GPS)
a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of setellites, tracking stations, and recievers
grain
seed of a cereal grass
gravity model
model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
green revoluton
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yeild seeds and fertilizers
greenbelt
a rin of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
greenhouse effe3ct
anticipated increase in Earth's temp., caused by CO2 trapping some of the ratdiation emitted by the surface
grenwich mean time
the time in that time zone ecompassing the prime meridian
gross domestic product (GDP)
the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year)
guest workers
workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and WEstern Europe, usually from Southern and eastern europe or from north africa, in search of higher-paying jobs
habit
repetitive act performed by a particular individual
hearth
the region from which innovative ideas orginate
hierarchial religion
a religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
horticulture
the growing of fruits, vegies, and flowers
hull
the outer covering of a seed
Human development index (HDI)
indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by UN, coming income, literacy, education and life expectancy
hydroelectric power
power generated form moving water
ideograms
the system of writing used in china and other east asian countries in which each symbol represents and idea or a concept rather than a specific sound as in the case with letters in english
immigration
migration to a new location
imperialism
control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
inanimate power
power supplied by machines
industrial revolution
a series of improvements in industraial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
infant mortality rate (IMR)
the toal number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
intensive subsistence agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in whichn farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
internal migration
permanent movement within a particular country
international date line
an arc that for the msot part follows 180 longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas
international migration
permanent movement from one coutnry to another
interregional migration
premanent movement form one region of a country to another
intervening obstacle
an environmental or cultureal feature of hte landscape that hinders migration
intraregional migration
permanent movement within one region of a country
isogloss
a boundary that separates regions in which defferent lan. usages predominate
isolaed lang.
a lang. that is unrelated to any other lang.s and therefore not attached to any lang. family
labor-intensive industry
and industry for which labor osts comprise a high percentage of total expenses
landlocked state
a state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
land ordinance of 1785
a low that divided much of the US into a system of townships to faciltate the sale of land to settlers
language
a system of communication through teh use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of peole to have the same meaning
language branch
colletion of lang.s related through a common ancestor that existd severla thoughsand years ago
language family
colleciton of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
language group
collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
latitude
the numbering system used to indicate the locatino of paralles drawn on a globe and measureing distance north adn south of the equator
less developed country (LDC) or deveolping contry
a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic deveolpment
life expectancy
the adv nujber of years an idividual can be expected to live, given current social, economic and medical conditions
lingua franca
a lang. nutually understood and comonly usued in trade by people who have diff. native lang.s
literacy rate
the percentage of a coutnr's pepole who can read and write
literary tradition
lang that is written as well as spoken
location
the position of anythoing on earth's surface
longitude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and mearuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
map
two dimenional or flat representatio nof earth's surface or aportion of it
maquiladora
factories built by US companies in mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico
mardet area (hinterland)
the area surrounding a central place, from whihc people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
medical rev
medical technology invented in europe and north america that is diffued to the poorer countries
mental map
an internal representation of a portion of earths surface based on what an individual knows about a place
meridian
an arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles
metropolitan statistical area
in US a central city of a least 50,000 pop, the county within which the city is located and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
micropolitan statistical area
urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city
microstate
state that encompasses a very small land area
migration
form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location
migration transition
change in the migration pattering in a society that results from industionizaiton, pop growth and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
milkshed
the area surrounding a city form which milk is upplied
missionary
an indifvidual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religon
mobility
all types of movemetn form one location to another
monotheism
the doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
more developed country (MDC) or relatiely developed country or develooped country
country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
multi-thnic state
state that contains more than one ethnicity
multinational state
state than contains two or more ethnic groups with traditons of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
nultiple nuclei model
model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are aranged around a colledtion of noes of activities
nationalism
loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
nationality
identity with a goupr of people tha tshare legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there
nation-state
state whose terrritory corresponds to that occuped by a particular ethnicity tha has been transformed into a nationality
natural increase rate
the percentage growth of a pop in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
net migration
the diff. between the level of immigration adn the level of emigration
new international division of labor
transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
nonbasic industries
industries that sell their products primarily to sonsumers in the community
nonferrous
metals utilezed to make products other thatn iron and steel
nonrenewable energy
souce of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted
official lang.
the lang adopted for use by the gov. for hte conduct of busines and publication of documents
overpopulation
number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
ozone
a gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the statosphere
paddy
malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah
pagan
a follower of a phlytheistic religion in ancient times
pandemic
disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion fo the pop
parallel
a circle drawn around the globe paralles ot the equator and at right angles to the meridians
passive solar energy ststems
solar energy ststem that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices
pastoral nomadism
a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
pasture
grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
pattern
the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
perforated state
state that completely surrounds another one
peripheral model
model of north american urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
personal services
services that profice for the well-being and personal imrovement of individual consumers
photochemical smog
an atmosphereic condition adn pollution, especially form motor vehicle emissions
photovoltaic cell
solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity
physiological density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land, whick is land suitable for agriculture
pidgin lang.
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocab. of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two diff. langs
pilgrimage
a journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes
place
a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular characterf
plantation
large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale usually to a more developed country
polder
land created by the dutch by draining water from an area
pollution
addition of more wast thatn a resource can accommodate
polytheism
belief in or worship of more than one god
popular culture
culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certian habits despidte differenes in other personal characteristics
population pyramid
a bar graph representing the distribution of pop. by age and sex
possibilism
the theory that the physical environment may se tlimits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Post-Fordist production
adoption by companies is flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of jobs
potential reserve
the ammoutn of energy in deposits not yet identified by though to exist
preservation
mainenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact
primary sector
the poriton of the economy concerned concerned with the direct extraction of material sfrom earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing and forestry
primate city
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
primate city rule
a pattern of settlement in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many peole as the second-ranking settlement
prime agricultural land
the most productinve farmland
prime meridian
the meridian disignated as 0 degrees longitude which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
principal meridian
a nor-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the US
producer services
services that primarily help peole conduct businiess
productivity
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
projection
the system used to transfer locations form earths surface to a flat map
prorupted state
n othewise compact state wiht a large projecting extension
proven reserve
the amount of reserve remaing in discovered deposits
public houseing
housing owned by the gov; in the us, it is rented to low-income resident, and the rents rae set at 30 percent of hte families' incomes
public services
services offered by the gov to provide sercirity and prtection for citizens and businesses
pull factors
factors that induce peole to move to a new location
push factors
factors that induce pole to leave old rsidences
quota
in reference to migration, a law that paces maximum limits on the number of peole who can immigrate to a country each year
rae
identity wiht a group of peple descended form a comon ancestor
racism
belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differrences producct and inherent superiority of a particular race
racist
a person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism
radioactive waste
particles form a nuclear reacction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people adn must therefore be safely sotred fro thousands of years
ranching
a form of commercial agriculture in wich livestock graze over an extensive area
range (of a service)
the maximum distance peole are willing to travel to use a service
rank-size rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the pop of the largest settlement
reaper
a machine that cuts grain standing in the field
recycling
the seperation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material
redlining
a prcess by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boudaries
refugees
peole who are foced to migrate from their home country adn cannot return for fear of persecution becasue of ther race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinon
region
an area istinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
regional studies
an approach to geophraphy that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
relocation diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend thorugh bodily monement of poel eform one place to another
remote sensing
the acquisition of data about earth's surface form a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods
renewable energy
a resource that has theoretically unlimited supply and is not depletd when ussed by humans
resource
a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
retail services
services that provide goods for sale to consumers
ridge tillage
sysstem of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
right-to-work state
a US state that has passed a law preventing a uniion an dcompany from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
rush hour
the four consecutive 15 min periods in the morning and evening witht eh heaviest volumes of traffic
sanitary landfill
a place to deposit solid wste, wehre a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage ech day to reduce emissions og gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin
sawah
a flooded field for growing rice
scale
the relationship between the portion of earth being studied and earth as a whole specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map
secondary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming and assembling raw materials
sect
a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
section
a square normally 1 mile on a side--township is 36 sections
sector model
model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around aseries of secotrs or wedges goin out form central business district
seed agriculture
repro of plants through annual intro of seeds
self-determination
concept that ethnicites have the right to govern themselves
servie
any activity tha tfulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide
settlement
a permanen colleciton of buildings and inhabitatnts
sex ration
the number of males per 100 females in pop
sharecropper
perosn who works fields rented form a ladowner and pays the rent and repays loans by tuning over the landowner a share of crops
shifting cultivation
form of sibsistence agriculture in which pepo eshift activity form one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
site
the physical character of aplace
site factors
location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, adn captial
situation
the location of a place relative to other places