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### 57 Cards in this Set

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 cultural landscape A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation. - People are the most important agents of change on the earths surface. culture Body of customary beliefs, material traits and social reforms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people. situation THe location of a place relative to other places. Valuable to indicate location. finding unfamiliar places as well as understanding its importance. crude birth rate is the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Crude birth rate is 20 that means for every 1,000 people 20 babies are born. crude death rate is the total number of live deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. national increase rate percentage by which a population grows in a year. subtracting cbr - cdr, after first converting the two from numbers per 1,000 to percentages. if cbr is 20 and cdr is 5. nir is 15 per 1000 or 1.5% doubling time the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. total fertility rate used to measure the number of births in a society. Its the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49) infant mortality rate annual number of infant deaths under one year of age compared to the total live births agricultural density the ration of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land. this measure helps account for economical differences. scale refers to the relationship of a features size on a map to its actual size on earth. site one way geographers describe location. Its the physical character of a place. Climate, water sources, topograpghy, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation. functional region also called a nodal region. Its an area organized around a node or focal point. Dominates at a central focus and dimishes outward. diffusion process by which a characteristic spreads across from one place to another over time. Now days this happenes rapidly with our sophisticated communications. globalization force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope. agricultural revolution time when humans first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely of hunting and gathering life expectancy common scense demographic transition changes in natural increase, fertility, and mortality rates, but at different times and at different rates. 4 stages. 1Low growth, 2high growth, 3moderate growth, 4low growth industrial revolution major improvements in industrial technology.. blah blah medical revolution helped push some countries into stage 2. the diffusion of medical technology to less developed countires. scale refers to the relationship of a features size on a map to its actual size on earth. site one way geographers describe location. Its the physical character of a place. Climate, water sources, topograpghy, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation. functional region also called a nodal region. Its an area organized around a node or focal point. Dominates at a central focus and dimishes outward. diffusion process by which a characteristic spreads across from one place to another over time. Now days this happenes rapidly with our sophisticated communications. globalization force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope. agricultural revolution time when humans first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely of hunting and gathering life expectancy common scense demographic transition changes in natural increase, fertility, and mortality rates, but at different times and at different rates. 4 stages. 1Low growth, 2high growth, 3moderate growth, 4low growth industrial revolution major improvements in industrial technology.. blah blah medical revolution helped push some countries into stage 2. the diffusion of medical technology to less developed countires. zero population growth crude birth rate equals crude death rate. often applied to stage 4 countries may occur whe n cbr is slightly higher than cdr because some females die before reaching childbearing years. population pyramids age and gender groups on a bar graph. normally shows the percentage of the total population in five year age groups. dependency ratio number of people that are to old or young to work. compared to the total number of people in their productive years physiological density the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land arithmetic density also known as population density. total number of people divided by total land area immigration migrating to a location push factors induces people to move out of their present location. War, Avoid conscription, economic, forced migration, current home unsafe pull factors induces people to move to a location. Economic, lure of freedom refugees people who have been foreced to migrate from their home and cant return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, political opinon. etc. international migration a permanent movement from one country to another internal migration permenant movement within the same country voluntary migration implies that the migrant has chosen to move for economic improvement forced migration migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors guest workers citizens of poor countires who obtain jobs in western europe and the middle east counterurbanization net migration from urban to rural areas. late 20th century the more developed countires, more people immagrated into rural ares than emigrated out of them. folk culture traditionally practiced in small homogenous groups living in isolated rural ares. loin cloths pop culture found in large heterogeneous societiesthat share certain habits. jeans urbanization process by witch the poulation of cities grow. 2 things: increase in number of people living in cities and an increase in the percentage of people living in cities. squatter settlements less developed countries are unable to house the rapidly growing number of poor. Immigrants to urban ares live in these settlements composed scavenged cardboard, wood boxes, cans... urban renewel cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the stie, and build new roads and utilities. gentrification process by which middle class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing edge cities originated as suburban residences for people who worked in the central city, and then shopping malls were built to be near the residents. greenbelts big cities surrounded by rings of open space sprawl the progressive spread of development over the landscape. example: us suburbs. also fostered by the desire of many families to own large tracts of land formal region also called a uniform region, is an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics. example: common language, climate, production of a particular crop Transferring locations from Earth's surface to a flat map is called projection. What types of distortion can occur in this transference? a. The shape of an area can be distorted. b. The relative size of different areas may be altered. c. The distance between two points may be incorrect. d. The direction from one place to another can be distorted. Population Density A. agricultural density - the ration of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land. this measure helps account for economical differences. B. physiological density the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land C. arithmetic density also known as population density. total number of people divided by total land area