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51 Cards in this Set

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What is Heat?
a form of energy that flows from one system or object to another becuase the two are at different temperatures.
What is Tempurature?
a measure of the average kinetic energy (motion) of individual molecules in matter.
What is the freezing and the boiling point of water on the Celsius scale?
freezing= 0 and boiling=100
How is zero degrees Kelvin defined?
absolute zero
What are the principal temperature controls?
latitudinal heat balance, and sun angle and radiation pathway
how does latitude affect the annual course of temps?
lower latitude equals higher sun angles, and greater heat
how do sun angles affect the temp
higher sun angles= increased insolation= greater heat
What is an isotherm?
line that connects points on a map with equal temps. (shown on weather channels as colors)
What is a Thermal Equator?
a line connecting all points with the highest mean temps.
Where is the thermal equator in January?
Is located over the S Hemisphere and bends southward over the continents.
Where is the thermal equator located in July?
over the N hemisphere, bends northward over the continents
What are primary and secondary pollutants?
primary-directly emitted pollutants, secondary-pollutants resulting from chemical transformations of primary pollutants(ex acid rain)
what are main sources of pollutants?
transportation, fuel combustion, industrial process
Carbon Monoxide
sources-transportation, forest fires, volcanic eruptions. effects-dispaces O2 in the bloodstream, headaches, vision and judgement losses
Nitrogen Oxides
sources-fuel combustion, transportation. effects-inflames respiratory system, destroys lung tissue, damages plants
Sulfur Oxides
sources-fuel combustion (coal burning) effects-impares breathing, weathers monuments and buildings
Particulates
sources-fires, fuel combustion, industrial process, transportation. effects- reduce visibility, respiratory system problems
VOCs
sources-incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, cleaning and paint solvants. effects-photochemical smog
Ozone (O3)
sources-photochemical reactions. effects-damages plants, damages respiratory system (bronchitis, pneumonia)
Industiral Smog
source-burning coal, industrial process. "london smog"
Photochemical Smog
sources-transportation. "LA fog"
Clean Air Act
1970. identifies most widespread pollutants
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
sets levels that protect environmental and human health
What is the average body temp, both C and F
36.8C or 98.2F
Wind Chill Temperature Index
indicates how cold a particular temp feels given a certain wind speed
Heat Index
incorporates the effect of high atmospheric moisture at high temps
Urban Climate effect on insolation and precipitation.
less insolation and more precipitation
Anticyclone
High pressure
cyclone
Low pressure
Average pressure at sea level
1013mb
what is pressure gradient?
vertical pressure gradient and gravity in balance
Anemometer
faster the rotation of the cups, the faster the wind SPEED
wind vane
points in the direction the wind is coming from
What is an ITCZ?
bands of clouds associated with the convergence of winds along the equator.
Hadley Cell
air expands and diverges toward higher latitudes. some of the wettest areas on earth.
What is the air at the Poles like?
cold and dense
Ferrel Cells
poleward of each hadley cell. circulate air between subtropical highs and subpolar lows.
Polar front
weather front located typically in the midlatitues that seperates arctic and polar air masses from tropical air masses
Rossby Wave
upper air westerlies. cause meridional flow of warm air from s to n and cold air from n to s
Length of rossby wave
approx 4000-6000km
Jet Stream (definition and location)
narrow bands of high wind velocity in the upper troposphere. part of midlatitude westerlies.
Land breeze
nighttime conditions (flows from land to water)
Sea breeze
Daytime conditions (flows from water to land)
Mountain Breeze
at night (warm goes down into valley)
Valley Breeze
at day (warm air rises out of valley)
Katabatic Winds
gravity drainage winds. "going downhill"
Mistral wind
Katabatic wind in S France. cold air generated funneled through Garone and Rhone Valleys
Bora wind
N to NE Kabatic wind in Adriatic or Aegean Sea.
Foehn wind/chinook wind
hot winds flow down the side of mtn ranges/chinook=east side of rockies
Monsoon
annual cycle of dryness and wetness, with seasonally shifting winds produced by changing atmospheric pressure systems
Ocean currents in N Hemisphere
Gulf stream and kuroshio