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156 Cards in this Set

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geography
the study of the earth's surface and the processes that shape it, the connections between places, and the complex relationships between people and their environments
relative location
the position of a place in relation to another place
functional region
a group of places connected by movement; e.g. the region drained by the Amaxon River/tributaries
crust
the solid rocky surface layer of the earth
biosphere
the world of plants, animals, and other living things in earth's land and waters
continental drift theory
the idea that continents slowly shift their positions due to movement of the tectonic plates on which they ride
mechanical weathering
the actual breaking up or physical weakening of rock by forces such as ice and roots
glacier
a huge, slow-moving mass of snow and ice
megalopolis
very large city; a region made up of several large cities and their surrounding areas, considered to be a single urban complex
fjord
a narrow valley or inlet from the sea, originally carved out by an advancing glacier and filled by melting glacial ice
euro
the common currency used by member nations of the European Union
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement which phased out trade barriers among the US, Canada, & Mexico
tariff
a tax imposed by a government on imported goods
Creole
the official language of Haiti
GIS
geographic information system; which uses computer technology to collect and analyze data about the earth's surface in order to solve geographic problems
character of a place
the physical and human characteristics that help to distinguish a place from other places
perceptual region
a group of places that is defined by people's feeling and attitudes
atmosphere
the layer of gases, water vapor, and other substances above the earth
continent
any of the 7 large landmasses of the earth's surface: africa, australia, antarctica, asia, europe, north america, south america
ring of fire
a ring of volcanic mountains surrounding the pacific ocean
erosion
the movement of weathered materials, including gravel soil and sand, usually caused by water, wind, and glaciers
moraine
a ridgelike mass of rock, gravel, sand, and clay carried and deposited by a glacier
province
a territory governed as a political division of a country
British Isles
Ireland and the U.K.; Ireland, Northern Ireland, England, Wales, and Scotland
Walloons
french-speaking belgians
new england
north east usa, consisting of the states Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont
secede
to withdraw formally from membership in a political or religious organization
gourdes
basic units of currency in Haiti
absolute location
the position on the earth in which a place can be found
perception
a viewpoint that is influenced by one's own culture and experiences
core
the earth's center, consisting of very hot metal that is dense and solid in the inner core and molten, or liquid, in the outer core
lithosphere
the surface features of the earth, including soil, rocks, and landforms
relief
the differences in elevation of the landforms in any particular area
weathering
the chemical or mechanical process by which rock is gradually broken down, eventually becoming soil
sediment
particles of soil, sand, and gravel carried and deposited by wind or water
GNP
gross national product; the total value of a nation's goods and services, including the output of domestic firms in foreign countries and excluding the domestic output of foreign firms
contiguous
connecting without a break
Aurora Borealis
the northern lights
United Kingdom
an island country of western europe, consisting of england, scotland, wales, and northern ireland
Inuit
a group of Eskimo people inhabiting the Arctic from northern Alaska eastward to eastern Greenland, particularly Canada
free enterprise
an economic system that allows individuals to own, operate, and profit from their own businesses in an open, competitive market
Taino
a person in the Bahamas who became extinct under Spanish colonization during the 16th century
hemisphere
a half of the earth; the equatore divides the northern and southern hemispheres; the prime meridian divides the east and west hemispheres
formal region
a group of places that have similar attributes
e.g. a political region
mantle
a thick layer of mostly solid rock beneath the earth's crust that surrounds the earth's core
hydrosphere
the water contained in oceans, lakes, rivers, and under the ground
plate tectonics
the theory that the earth's outer shell is composed of a number of large, unanchored plates whose constant movemnt explains earthquakes and volcanic activity
acid rain
rain whose high concentration of chemicals, usually from industrial pollution, pollutes water, kills plant and animal life, and eats away at the surface of stone and rock; (chemical weathering)
loess
fine-grained, mineral-rich loam, dust or silt deposited by the wind
renaissance
rebirth; the revival of art, literature, and learning that took place in Europe during the 1300-1500
cultural diffusion
the process by which people adopt the practices of their neighbors
Great Britain
a country in western europe consisting of England, Scotland, and Wales
peat
spongy material containing waterlogged nad decaying mosses and plants, sometimes dried and used as fuel
Maritime
bordering on or near the sea; relating to navigation or shipping
Hispaniola
an island in the Caribbean Sea, divided between Haiti on the west and the Dominican Republic on the east
Quinceanera
a Latin American 15th birthday celebration for girls, more special than other birthdays; celebrating the girl's entry to womanhood
the _________ mountain range is found in the eastern usa
appalachian mountains
the ________ bay is located in canada
hudson bay
a _________ map shows political boundaries or distribution of political power
political map
US has a ______ government
democratic government
a province in canada trying to break away to form its own nation
quebec
the ______ people settled in florida, texas, and present-day southwestern usa
spanish peoples
the _________ is the total value of a nation's output of goods and services
gross national profit (GNP)
90% of canadians live within _______ miles of the us border
100 miles of the us border
________ is the m ost common ecosystem in canada
coniferous
sunbelt of the us overlaps 2 regions:
south & west
most important feature of ontario
the waterways
USA's oil is located predominately in these states
Alaska & Texas
Territories of Canada
Yukon Territories, Northwest Territories, Nunavut
Four us regions
South, west, midwest, northeast
Canada's newest territory is called:
Nunavut
major political parties in the us
Republicans, democrats
'breadbasket' of the US
midwest
alberta, manitoba, and saskatchewan areknown as the ______ provinces
prairie
Most Canadian immigrants come from this part of the world
europe
a person leaving a country to immigrate to another one is known as a
emigrant
a band of hills running the length of England's west coast
'highlands' of england
the river on which London is located
Thames River
France's nickname
the Hexagon
Italy's shape
a boot
Scotland is united with this country
England
this poet said 'england is a garden'
Rudyard Kipling
After WW2 this city became Germany's cultural center
Munich
Capital of Italy
Rome
number of islands in Greece
2,000
Iceland is producing and using _________
geothermal energy
the 2 countries that border Liechtenstein
Austria & Switzerland
southern region of Italy is known as the ___________
Mezzogiorne
nickname of Ireland
the Emerald Isle
another name for the Benelux countries
the Low Countries
European countries that are not part of the EU
Switzerland, Monaco, Andorra, Norway, San Marino, Vatican, Liechtenstein
capital of the European Union
Brussels, Belgium
all the countries on the Iberian Peninsula
Spain, Andorra, Portugal
the Nordic Nations
Iceland, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Sweden
the neutral countries
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Switzerland
the divisions of Ireland
Northern Ireland, the republic of Ireland
the Benelux countries
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
When were Austria's borders formed?
After WW2
what happened in Ireland after they adopted the Euro?
inflation (in Ireland)
place less than 1 square mile large located in what city and country
Vatican City; Rome, Italy
natural resources found in USA
oil, coal, gold, silver, hydroelectric power, forests, iron, copper)
largest natural resource in Canada
timber
the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources
a renewable resource is a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used
this region has the fewest natural resources of the US
northeast
this state has the highest iron ore production in the us
minnesota
Canada's oldest city
Victoria
more than 1/2 the US african american population lives in this region
south
aspects of 'material' culture
food,clothing,music architecture,art,technollogy.sports, entertainment
this is how culture can be defined
the way of life that distinguishes people
in the U.S.there many diverse groups of people with distinct cultural identities. what is this called?
melting pot
most of the people who live in quebec identify themselves as _______
french (people in quebec)
the native people of the northern territories in Canada call themselves this
Inuit
name that means 'the people'
Inuit
more than half the US immigrants come from here
latin america
difference between immigrant and emigrant
immigrant enters (comes into) a country, emigrant leaves (Exits) a country
at the beginning of the 21st century, how many people in the US had been born in other countries around the world?
more than 28 million
the 5 great lakes
Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, Erie
the most multi-cultural city in the world
Toronto
the significance of the continental divide
it's the boundary that separates rivers flowing in opposite directions
the characteristics that give new england its brilliant breathtaking fall colors
precipitation, type of soil, varieties of trees
the midwest land of the US is predominately used for this
farming
the growing season
the average number of days between the last frost of spring and the first frost of fall, more than 200 days
how many hectacres has Canada designated for national park/forest reserve land
600 million hectacres
order the modes of transportation first/last: steamboat, canoe, train, car, airplane
canoe, steamboat, train, car, airplane
why is there little economic activity in the southwestern US
desert climate makes farming and other activities difficult
the largest island in the british isles
great britain
countries that make up great britain
england, scotland, wales,
people of northern europe call their land Norden, meaning:
northlands
countries that make up the nordic nations
norway, sweden, finland, denmark, & iceland
northern nations are also called the nordic nations. another name?
scandinavia
what does the castle on Spain's coat of arms symbolize?
spain's history and physical characteristics
Spain is also known as a meseta. what does it mean?
plateau
What is the name of the tiny country on Spain's border?
Andorra
what are siroccos?
hot dry winds from northern africa that blow over spain
the countries on the iberian peninsula
andorra, spain, portugal
how much land does scotland occupy of the UK?
nearly 1/3
what two physical features that separate scotland from england?
cheviot hills, and tweed river
what is one key to preserving the welsh culture?
language
what 3 countries are part of the EU, but use their own currencies?
the UK, Sweden, Denmark
1/6 of ireland is covered by ________
peat
what event caused prices to increase sharply in Ireland?
Ireland adopted the Euro
why are the benelux also known as the low countries?
because so much of their land is low and flat
how long has luxembourg existed?
more than 1,000 years
what are the official languages of switzerland
french, german & italian
what mountain range runs from east to west along the entire northern boundary of italy
alps
what is the name for the world headquarters of the roman catholic church
vatican city
what is the northern region of Italy often called?
European Italy
what river drains the Paris Basin?
the Seine
in which region of france are the vineyards found?
the southwest region
what is the name of the busiest seaport in france?
the port of Marseille
What is the name of europe's busiest waterway?
the Rhine River
what is the tallest mountain peak in Greece?
Mount Olympus, 9,570 feet
About 3500 years ago, Crete was the center of what?
the Bronze Age culture
Greece was a part of which ancient empire?
the Roman Empire
Athens is known as the birthplace of what?
Western Civilization
During the industrial revolution, what was England known as?
the workshop of the world