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53 Cards in this Set

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what refers to the vertical elecation differences in the landscape.
relief
what are the three general categories of relief
low, med, high
what describes the undulating surface of the earth.
topography
what is drawn on topographic maps to show ground elevations (reliefs)
contour lines
what order of relief is the large continental platforms and ocean basins.
first order of relief
what order of relief is the large continental platforms and ocean basins.
first order of relief
what are masses of crust located aboe or near sea level and include continental shelves beneath the ocean
continental platforms
what are areas entirely below the sea
ocean basins
what order of relief has continental features such as continetnal masses, mountain masses, plains, and lowlands; ocean features such as continental rises, slopes, abyssal plains, mid-ocean ridges, subamarine canyons, and subduction trenches
2nd order of relief
what order of relief refers to local features or landscapes (eg indiviual valleys, mountains, cliffs, and other distinct local features)
3rd order of relief
what describes the distribution of earth's surfaces above and velow the sea by area and elevation
hypsometry
what topographic regions is: local relief less than 325 ft, slopes gently into sea on coastlines, plains rise continuosly inland up to 2,000 ft elevation; only on 4 continents
plains
what topographic region is:
elevations over 5,000 ft with local relief less than 1,000 ft, except where cut by canyons
what topographic region is: local relief more than 325 ft but less than 2,000 ft; near edge of sea may be less than 200 ft
hills
what topographic region is: elevation less than 5,000 ft with local relief less than 325 ft; does not usually reach the sea, but if it does, a bluff less than 200 ft high marks the boundary
low tablelands
what topographic region is: local relif greater than 2,000 ft, exists on each continent
mountain ranges
what topographic region is: discontinuous and stanidng in isolation with intervening areas of local relief less than 500 ft
widely-spaces mountains
what topographic region is: discontinuous, stands in isolation from intervening areas of local relief less than 500 ft
depressions
3 categories of of continental crust formation
1. new crust formed in assoc. w/volcanic eruptions
2. accretion of materials that build up around the continental cores
3. tectonic mountains and landforms, produced by active folding and faulting
what is a very old and relativley unchanged body of rock
a craton
where a continental core is exposed at the surface is called a....
continental shield
what are portions of cratons that are covered by layers of sedimentary rock and which remain relatively stable over time
platforms
what are massive chunks of continental crust that become attached to Earth's plates.
terranes
what form by accumulation of fragements of oceanic crust form the ocean floor or volcanic island chains forced against adeges of continental shields and platforms
terranes
what are terranes that are carried from a particular origin to a new location by tectonic movement. they have different histories from the continent they are attached to.
displaced terranes
what are the 3 stresses that act on rocks w/in the lithosphere and are caused by tectonic forces, gravity, and the weight of overlying rocks and cause the earht's crust to deform
tension = stretching
compression = shortening
shear = tearing and twisting
what refers to how rocks respond to tectonic forces
strain
what is bending of rock formations
folding
what is breaking of rock formations
faulting
2 structural features of folds are
anitcline and a syncline
along the ridge of a fold, layers slp[e downward away from the axis of the ridge, forming an.....
anticline
persisitent compressional forces can push folds far enough to cause them to overturn and create an.....
overturned anticline
the trough of a fold is.....looking sort of like a valley in cross sectionk, where the layers slope downward toward the axis if the fold along the bottom of the trough
syncline
what refers to the displacement of rocks on 2 sides of a fracture
faulting
what causes an earthquake
when the crust breaks, the fault line shifts and suddenly releases energy called an earthquake
the rock units on each side of a fault line are called
blocks
3 types of faults
normal, reverse,strike-skip
what fault is this: occurs where vlocks are pulled apart, and blocks move in vertically with one block sliding up (footwall block) and one block sliding down (hanging wall)
normal fault
what fault is this: occurs where blocks are subjected to compressional forces and forces one block to slide up along the fault plane rahter than dropping down
reverse fault
what fault is this: occurs where movement salong the fault plane is primarily horizontal this is similar to the motion that produces a transform fault
strike-skip fault
what does orogensis mean
"birth of the mountains"
what is a mountain-building episode that thickens continental crust over millions of years
orogeny
what is the last stage of the orogenic cycle
uplift
vibrations from earthquakes are transmitted as...... through the lithosphere and through Earth's interior.
seismic waves
what instrument detects seismic waves
seismograph
which wave is the first wave transmitted and propagated by an earthquake.
P-wave
what wave is the wave of earth movements sometime after th p=wave.
s-wave
which wave travel fastest in earth's lithosphere during and immediately following an earthquake
p wave
what wave actually move particles within the substance or matter they pass through and cause the lateral or vertical ground movements that we feel as earthquakes
s wave
what are the 3 different scales for the strength of an earhtquake
intensity, richter, and moment-magnitude
which earthquake scale is more descriptive - used to classfy quakes according to damage top terrain and structures due to earth movments
intensity scale
which quake scale is the common modern scaled based on the size of seismic waves recorded by a seismograph
richter scale
which quake scale is an open-ended, log scale on which each whole number on the scale reps a 10x increase in the size of the wave.
magnitude