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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three vertices of the triangle of human ecology?
Population, Habitat, and Behavior
What are the features of a Population?
Age, Sex, Genetics
What are the features of a Habitat?
Natural, Social, Built
What are the features of Behavior?
Beliefs, Social Organization, and Technology
What is Germ Theory?
The realization that the agents of disease are microscopic organisms that inhabit our bodies.
The discovery of Germ Theory lead to what medical breakthroughs?
Asepsis, Sterilization, Vaccination, Antibiotics, Chlorination
What is Germ Theory no longer viewed as pertinent to a discussion of health in developed nations?
Diseases in developed nations are no longer based on a single cause like the Flu or Cholera, but are based on a number of complex intertwined biological and cultural causes.
What is an insult?
An insult is any physical, chemical, infections, or psychosocial force that affects health.
How are insults beneficial?
Insults help train our bodies to cope. The immune system becomes more adept at fighting a virus if it has previously seen a similar virus. Insults are only beneficial when the level of health is allowed to return to it's pre-insult state. Continued exposure to a variety on insults without any recovery time can lead to continual weakening and finally death.
What are some examples of a physical insults?
Injury, Trauma, Heat/Cold, Pressure, Radiation, Noise
What are some examples of a chemical insults?
Pollution, Smog, Food Additives, Vitamin Deficiencies, Biologically Active Drugs, Oxygen Levels
What are some examples of a psycho-social insults?
Anxiety, Stress, Overcrowding, Isolation
What are some examples of a the insults experienced at birth?
Breathing, Temperature Change, Light, Noise
What is etiology?
The study of the causes and the origins of disease.
Define incidence.
The number of diagnosed cases of a disease for a population over a defined period of time.
Define prevalence.
The number of people in a population sick with a disease at a particular time, regardless of when the disease was contracted.
Define epidemic.
When a disease derived from a common source spreads beyond expectation.
Define endemic.
When a disease is constantly present in an area.
What are the three settlement patterns?
Nuclear, Dispersed, and Linear
What is genetic susceptibility?
A condition in which the genetics of a family increase the likelihood of contracting a specific disease. The disease still must be caused by something, but genetic susceptibility causes some to be more apt for infection.
Define case mortality.
The number of deaths caused by a disease divided by the total number of cases.
Define demographic transition.
Demographic transition is the progression of a society away from high birth and mortality rates to low mortality and birth rates. This transition is usually seen in countries as they become developed.
How must a water borne illness be contracted.
Water borne illnesses are contracted through drinking contaminated water.
What is a water based illness?
A water based illness relies on water to survive. Snails are part of the life cycle of schistosomiasis. Snails require water to breed thus labeling schistosomiasis as a water based disease. This is also true for the A. Aegypti mosquito.
Define cultural ecology.
Cultural ecology is the collective term for the behaviors and beliefs within a particular culture. This is more specific than human ecology.
How did Rene Dubos define health?
Dubose defined health as the ability to cope.
How did Jacques May define health?
What causes Beriberi?
A lack of Vitamin B. The husks of rice contain vitamin B. Polishing removes husks. Vitamin B is water soluble so cooking in excess water and then discarding the water further depletes Vitamin B even further. Robert Williams realized that it was a vitamin deficiency and created a way to synthetically create it. Synthetic vitamin B was then used to enrich foods.
What causes Pellagra?
Pellagra is caused by a deficiency of Niacin. Very little niacin is found in corn. During the winter when corn is the primary staple, causing nerve damage and insanity.
What causes Goiter?
Iodine deficiency. Iodine is used in the creation of thyroxin. An enlargement known as goiter occurs. Can be prevented with iodized salt.
What is the agent of Malaria?
What is the agent of Schistomiasis?
Fluke (Schistosoma mansoni)
What is the agent of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever?
Flavo Virus
What is the agent of Bubonic Plague?
Yersinia pestia
What is the agent of Yellow Fever?
Togavirus (Group B)
What is the agent of Lyme Disease?
Spirochete bacteria
What is the agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
What is the vector of Malaria?
Aedes Anapholes
What is the vector of Schistomiasis?
Snails (intermediate)
What is the vector of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever?
Aedes species
What is the vector of Bubonic Plague?
Flea (xeonpsylla cheopis)
What is the vector of Yellow Fever?
Aedes Egypti
What is the vector of Lyme Disease?
Deer Tick (ixodes)
What is the vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
What is the reservoir of Malaria?
What is the reservoir of Schistomiasis?
What is the reservoir of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever?
What is the reservoir of Bubonic Plague?
What is the reservoir of Yellow Fever?
What is the reservoir of Lyme Disease?
small mammals
What is the reservoir of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
small mammals
Where is Malaria found?
Tropics and Subtropics
Where is Schistomiasis found?
Asia, Africa, North-East South America, Caribbean, Middle East
Where is Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever found?
Caribbean, Central America, South and South-East Asia
Where is Bubonic Plague found?
Western US, Vietnam, South Africa, South America, Central Asia
Where is Yellow Fever found?
Tropical Africa and South America
Where is Lyme Disease found?
Northeastern US
Where is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever found?
Southeastern US
What is Kwashiorkor?
A very severe form of protein deficiency.
When is the incubation stage?
Immediately following the initial contact and contraction of a disease before it is contagious or shows symptoms.
When is a disease latent?
When the host is contagious, but has yet to develop symptoms.
What is viremia?
Veremia refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream as well as the relative amount.
What is circulation and when does it occur?
Circulation is the planned, deliberate movement of people in an industrialized nation. For example, in the US, people move to new places, but traditionally do so with much planning. People often go on vacation, but return home.
What are arthropods?
Arthropods include species of spiders, ticks, mosquitoes, and flies
What are helminths?
Helminths are the worms (round, flat, hook, etc.)
Define zoonosis.
Zoonosis describes a disease with a natural reservoir that can transmit the disease to people. For example, rabies in dogs can be transmitted to humans.
Define epizootic.
An epizootic disease primarily affecting animals. The disease can be transmitted to humans that are in direct contact with infected animals frequently.
Define estivation.
Estivation is a form of hibernation during the summer months.