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29 Cards in this Set

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dynamic land forms: 4 steps
Stability
Destabilization
Adjustment
New (similar) stability
weathering, two types, how deep
phsyical and chemical. 100 m
main conduit for weathering is
Joints and they have positive feedback, usually less than 50m deep
types of joints
columnar occur in igneous rocks, patterns
types of physical weathering: 6
frost wedging, crystallization (salt), exfoliation due to pressure releases, hydration leads to expansion, fire, plant roots
4 types of chemical weathering
hydrolosis H+ and OH replace mineral ions, oxidation: metallic elements combine with oxygen, carbonization: carbon combines and carries away minerals, leaching
factors that influence weather 3
rock types and structure, slope, biotic
development of karst topography aided by 4
Steep hydraulic gradient
High precipitation
Abundant vegetation
High temperature
dripstone
cave formation from dripping water
cockpit karst
Occurs in thick, well jointed limestone that separates into isolated blocks as it weathers
mass wasting
The movement of regolith downslope as a result of gravity
two slope types
waxing: top, convex
waning: bottom concave
Shear stress
force acting to cause movement parallel to the slope. two parts, perpendicular and tangential
shear strength 3 types
internal resistance of the body to such movement.
Frictional resistance
Cohesion between particles
Vegetational binding
angle of repose
steepest angle at which loose material is stable, generally 33-37 deg
water's role 2
reduce cohesiveness and friction
3 types of range in mass wastign process
wet to dry, fast to slow, and small to large
5 types of sudden failure
slump, rockfall, rockslide, debrisfall, debrisslide
sediment flow depends on 2
Relative % of sediment, water, air
Physical & chemical properties of the sediment
two types of wet sediment flow
Slurry flow
moving mass of water saturated sediment
Granular flow
mixture of sediment, air, water
types of slurry flows 3
solifluction very slow, debris flow (coarse slow to fast), mudflow can be fast
types of granual flow, byspeed
creep real slow,
earth flow, faster
debris avalanches
dry events 3 types
slumping, falling, sliding
3 controls over mass wasting events
Slope steepness
Saturation (friction)
Composition of material
mass wastign in cold climates
frost heaving
gelifluction
solifluction with permafrost
submarine mass wasting
can make tsunamis
mass wasting triggers 5
earthquakes, slope modifications, under cutting (fluvial and surf), rain events, volcanoes
4 types of stream bed structure
consequent: dtermined by the slope of the land
2. subsequent: geologic strct
3. antecedent: maintained over rising rocks
4. superposed: letdown onto differnt rock