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172 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a system of knowledge based on facts and principles
science
the application of science to meet human needs
technology
chemistry and physics
phsyical sciences
geology and meteorology
earth sciences
a tested possible explanation of a natural event
theory
a summary of an observed natural event
conclusion
a series of logical steps used to solve problems
scientific method
scientists test new ideas by performing what?
experiments
during an experiment only one _____ or change is tested at a time
variable
an experiment that generates a lot of data is usually plotted on a what?
graph
what does the prefix milli stand for?
1/1000
convert the following into scientific notation:
3,000,000,000
3 x 10 9
convert the following into standard notation:
4.5 x 10 8
450,000,000
to find the speed of something, you must measure what?
distane and time
when an object covers equal distances in equal amounts of time, it is moving at a what?
constant speed
the graph of a faster moving object like a jet has a _____ than a slower object like a walking peron
higher slope
the speed of a wheel chair racer can be found by dividing what?
distance and time
the word used to describe the speed AND direction of something
velocity
the velocity of a body changes if its speed or _____ changes
direction
the product of _____ and _____ is called momentum
mass and velocity
an object with more _____ would be more difficult to stop
mass
the law of conservation of momentum states that the total amount of momentum in a collision is _____. in other words, the total moment of two cards before a collison is the _____ as the total momentum after the collision.
conserved, same
any change in speed or velocity is called what?
acceleration
if the _____ of a bicycle increases very gradually, its acceleration is small
velocity
a bicycle traveling at a constant speed but changing _____ is still acceleration
direction
to calculate acceleration, divide the change in _____ by _____
velocity by time
_____ is the cause of acceleration of change in velocity
force
the combination of all forces acting on an object is called what?
the net force
_____ act in opposite directions and completley cancel each other out
equal forces
_____ act in opposite directions but do not cancel each other out
unequal forces
the graph of a faster moving object like a jet has a _____ than a slower object like a walking peron
higher slope
the speed of a wheel chair racer can be found by dividing what?
distance and time
the word used to describe the speed AND direction of something
velocity
the velocity of a body changes if its speed or _____ changes
direction
the product of _____ and _____ is called momentum
mass and velocity
an object with more _____ would be more difficult to stop
mass
the law of conservation of momentum states that the total amount of momentum in a collision is _____. in other words, the total moment of two cards before a collison is the _____ as the total momentum after the collision.
conserved, same
any change in speed or velocity is called what?
acceleration
if the _____ of a bicycle increases very gradually, its acceleration is small
velocity
a bicycle traveling at a constant speed but changing _____ is still acceleration
direction
to calculate acceleration, divide the change in _____ by _____
velocity by time
_____ is the cause of acceleration of change in velocity
force
the combination of all forces acting on an object is called what?
the net force
_____ act in opposite directions and completley cancel each other out
equal forces
_____ act in opposite directions but do not cancel each other out
unequal forces
an unbalanced force that can slow down the speed of a car
friction
friction varies depending on the _____ in contact
force
_____ is a type of friction that depends upon the interaction between the surface of a moving body and the air molecules
air resistance
the force of attraction between two particles due to their mass
gravity
the force of gravity between two objects depends on their _____ and the _____ between the two objects
masses, distance
the gravity between two objects in noticed when the mass of one object like the earth is very _____
large
_____ is the tendence for an object at rest to remain at rest or if moving, to continue moving with constant velocity
inertia
if an unbalanced force acts on an object, we know that the object will do what?
move
newton's 2nd law calculates the force action on and object by multiplying _____ by _____
mass times acceleration
force is measures in a unit called _____ which is kg m/s 2
newtons
when gravity is the only force action on a body, it is said to be in _____
free fall
during free fall the speed of all bodies _____ regardless of their _____
is the same, masses
free fall means that if you drop a light book and a heavy rock from the same height, they would hit the ground when?
time
the acceleration a body feels during free fall is called _____
gravity
to calculate the force of gravity or weight, multiply _____ by _____
mass, gravity
a quantity that measures the effects of force acting over a distance is called what?
work
the units of work are ____ which are newtons/ meter
joules
_____ is the rate at which work is done or how fast work is done
power
a machine makes it easier to do _____ by redirectiong or multiplying forces
work
_____ is the term used to descrivbe how much force or distance is multiplied by a machine
mechanical advantage
there are _____ types of simple machines divided into two familes, the _____ and the _____
6, lever, inclined plane
the incline plane family inclues _____,_____, and ______
wedge, inclined plane, and screw
when work is done, then an object gains what?
energy
a stretched slingshot stores energy in the form called _____
potential energy
the energy an object has because of its motion is called _____
kinetic energy
the _____ states that energy cannot be created or destroyed
law of conservation of energy
the law of conservation of energy means that as potential energy becomes _____, kinetic energy becomes _____
decreased, increased
a _____ is a disturbance that carries energy through matter or space
wave
the matter through which a wave travels through is called a what?
medium
waves that require a medium are called what?
mechanical waves
a type of wave that does not require a medium is called a what?
electromagnetic wave
most waves are caused by what?
vibrating particles
_____ have perpendicular motions
transverse
_____ waves cause the particles to vibrate parallel to the direction of motion
longitudinal
light waves are an example of _____ waves, and sound waves are an example of _____ waves
electromagnetic/transverse, longitudinal
the highest point on a transverse wave is called a what?
crest
the lowest point on a transverse wave is called a what?
trough
the height of the wave is known as the _____ and indicates the _____ of the wave
amplitude, intensity
the distance from one crest to another crest i called the what?
wavelength
the number of vibrations of a wave each second is known as the _____
frequency
to measure a wave's speed, you multiply _____ by _____
frequency by wavelength
_____ occurs when waves bounce off of a surface
reflection
_____ occurs when waves bend around a surface
diffraction
_____ occurs when waves bend througha surface
refraction
_____ occurs when two waves meet and add or cancel energies
interference
all sounds are caused by what?
vibrating matter
the loundess of a song is determined by the energy of a wave called its what?
intensity
the loudness of a sound is measured in units called what?
decibels
the highness or lowness of a sound is called the what?
frequency
the pitch is caused by the _____ of the vibrating body
frequency
when the body vibrates quickly, the sound we hear is what?
a high pitch
_____ gives every instrument its unique sound and allows musicians to play chords
resonance
_____ occurs when the sound is amplified by the two objects that are vibrating at the same frequency
resonance
in order to hear, sounds cause the _____ to vibrate. these vibrations are transferred to the _____ by the bones of the middle ear where nerve endings send a message to the _____
eardrum, cochlea, brain
light can be described as a _____ or a _____. this is called the duality of light
wave, particle
in the particle model of light, packets of energy are called _____
photons
the brightness of light depends upon a light wave's _____, but the enrgy of a light wave depends on its _____
amplitude, frequency
the range of light waves emitted from a luminous source is called the _____
spectrum
name the eight regions of the electromagnetic spectrum in order from longest to shortest wavelengths
radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet
the region of light that we see is called the _____
visible light, ROYGBIV- colors
a type of wave that does not require a medium is called a what?
electromagnetic wave
most waves are caused by what?
vibrating particles
_____ have perpendicular motions
transverse
_____ waves cause the particles to vibrate parallel to the direction of motion
longitudinal
light waves are an example of _____ waves, and sound waves are an example of _____ waves
electromagnetic/transverse, longitudinal
the highest point on a transverse wave is called a what?
crest
the lowest point on a transverse wave is called a what?
trough
the height of the wave is known as the _____ and indicates the _____ of the wave
amplitude, intensity
the distance from one crest to another crest i called the what?
wavelength
the number of vibrations of a wave each second is known as the _____
frequency
to measure a wave's speed, you multiply _____ by _____
frequency by wavelength
_____ occurs when waves bounce off of a surface
reflection
_____ occurs when waves bend around a surface
diffraction
_____ occurs when waves bend througha surface
refraction
_____ occurs when two waves meet and add or cancel energies
interference
light waves shorter than visible light are called _____, and light waves longer than visible light are called _____
ultraviolet, infrared
the law of reflection states that the angle of reflected light _____ the angle of incident light
equals
white light is made up of _____ colors
seven
a green plant only reflects _____ light
green
when light hits a boundary at an angle, it bends or _____
refracts
_____ are cruved pieces of glass that bend light to make images bigger or smaller
lenses
a _____ can bend white light and separate it into colors of the rainbow
prism
unit for work
joules
unit for power
watts
unit for force
newtons
units for potential energy
joules
units for kinetic energy
joules
units for efficiency
percent
units for wavelength
hertz
the sum of all matter and energy that exists that ever existed and will ever exist
universe
a huge ball of hot gas that emits light
star
a collection of millions of billions of stars bound together by gravity
galaxy
a unit of distance equal to the distance light travels in one year
light year
the gas and dust located between the stars in a galaxy
instellar matter
a group of galaxies bound by gravity
cluster
a shift towards the red end of the spectrum in the observed spectal lines of stars or galazies
red shift
a scientific theory that states that the universe began 10 billion to 20 billion years ago in an enormous explosion
big bang theory
type of galaxy that is sprial shaped, has arms that contain gas and dust, and contains new stars, giving the galazy a blueish color
spiral galaxy
type of galaxy that is spherical shaped, contains little amounts of gas and dust, and contains old stars, giving the galaxy a reddish color
elliptical galaxy
type of galaxy that doesn't have a defined shape or structure, may contain a little amount of gas and dust, and may be a lrage cloud of interstellar matter that never became stars
irregular galaxy
the thinnest layer of the earth
crust
the layer of rock between the earth's crush and its core
mantle
the center of a planetary body, such as the earth
core
the thin outer shell of the earth, consisting of the crust and the ridged upper mantle
lithosphere
zone of the mantle beneath the lithosphere that consists of slowly flowing solid rock
asthenosphere
molten rock with the earth
magma
process where a tectonic plate dives benath another plate and into the asthenosphere
subduction
a crack in the earth created when rocks on either side of a break move
fault
continents once made up one super large continent...by alfred wegner
pangea
two plates move apart and create a gap between them. magma rises and cools forming new lithospheric rock. form mountain rainges and mid-oceanic ridges. valley in between is a rift valley
divergent boundaries
old lithosphere is destroyed while a new lithosphere enters. formed through subduction. ocean trenches form along boundaries between two ocean plates or between an oceanic plate and a continental plate. colliding continental plates create mountains. plates come together.
convergent boundaires
as plates moves, they scrape up against each other. the breaks they cause are called faults. rocks move horizontally past each other at faults
transform fault boundary
are along a fault where slippage first occurs, starting an earthquake
focus
point on the earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
epicenter
primary waves; longitudinal waves generated by an earthquake
p waves
secondary waves; transverse waves generated by an earthquake
s waves
a seismic wave that travels along the earth's surface
surface waves
study of earthwuakes and related phenomena
seismology
scale that expresses the relative magnitude of an earthquake
richter scale
opening through which molten rock flows onto the earth's surface
vent
type of volcano that has a gently sloping mountain, one of the larger volcanoes, and contains layers of lava
shield volcano
type of volcano that has more steeper slopes, slightly smaller and taller, contains layers of cinders and lava
composite volcano
type of volcano that has very steep sloped, small based and very tall, and contains layers of cinder
cinder cone volcano
type of volcano that is underwater
seamount volcano
rock formed from cooled and hardended magma or lava
igneous rock
a natural, inorganic solid with definite chemical composition and a charachteristic internal structure
mineral
change in the physical form or chemical composition of rock materials exposed at the earth's surface
weathering