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### 172 Cards in this Set

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 a system of knowledge based on facts and principles science the application of science to meet human needs technology chemistry and physics phsyical sciences geology and meteorology earth sciences a tested possible explanation of a natural event theory a summary of an observed natural event conclusion a series of logical steps used to solve problems scientific method scientists test new ideas by performing what? experiments during an experiment only one _____ or change is tested at a time variable an experiment that generates a lot of data is usually plotted on a what? graph what does the prefix milli stand for? 1/1000 convert the following into scientific notation: 3,000,000,000 3 x 10 9 convert the following into standard notation: 4.5 x 10 8 450,000,000 to find the speed of something, you must measure what? distane and time when an object covers equal distances in equal amounts of time, it is moving at a what? constant speed the graph of a faster moving object like a jet has a _____ than a slower object like a walking peron higher slope the speed of a wheel chair racer can be found by dividing what? distance and time the word used to describe the speed AND direction of something velocity the velocity of a body changes if its speed or _____ changes direction the product of _____ and _____ is called momentum mass and velocity an object with more _____ would be more difficult to stop mass the law of conservation of momentum states that the total amount of momentum in a collision is _____. in other words, the total moment of two cards before a collison is the _____ as the total momentum after the collision. conserved, same any change in speed or velocity is called what? acceleration if the _____ of a bicycle increases very gradually, its acceleration is small velocity a bicycle traveling at a constant speed but changing _____ is still acceleration direction to calculate acceleration, divide the change in _____ by _____ velocity by time _____ is the cause of acceleration of change in velocity force the combination of all forces acting on an object is called what? the net force _____ act in opposite directions and completley cancel each other out equal forces _____ act in opposite directions but do not cancel each other out unequal forces the graph of a faster moving object like a jet has a _____ than a slower object like a walking peron higher slope the speed of a wheel chair racer can be found by dividing what? distance and time the word used to describe the speed AND direction of something velocity the velocity of a body changes if its speed or _____ changes direction the product of _____ and _____ is called momentum mass and velocity an object with more _____ would be more difficult to stop mass the law of conservation of momentum states that the total amount of momentum in a collision is _____. in other words, the total moment of two cards before a collison is the _____ as the total momentum after the collision. conserved, same any change in speed or velocity is called what? acceleration if the _____ of a bicycle increases very gradually, its acceleration is small velocity a bicycle traveling at a constant speed but changing _____ is still acceleration direction to calculate acceleration, divide the change in _____ by _____ velocity by time _____ is the cause of acceleration of change in velocity force the combination of all forces acting on an object is called what? the net force _____ act in opposite directions and completley cancel each other out equal forces _____ act in opposite directions but do not cancel each other out unequal forces an unbalanced force that can slow down the speed of a car friction friction varies depending on the _____ in contact force _____ is a type of friction that depends upon the interaction between the surface of a moving body and the air molecules air resistance the force of attraction between two particles due to their mass gravity the force of gravity between two objects depends on their _____ and the _____ between the two objects masses, distance the gravity between two objects in noticed when the mass of one object like the earth is very _____ large _____ is the tendence for an object at rest to remain at rest or if moving, to continue moving with constant velocity inertia if an unbalanced force acts on an object, we know that the object will do what? move newton's 2nd law calculates the force action on and object by multiplying _____ by _____ mass times acceleration force is measures in a unit called _____ which is kg m/s 2 newtons when gravity is the only force action on a body, it is said to be in _____ free fall during free fall the speed of all bodies _____ regardless of their _____ is the same, masses free fall means that if you drop a light book and a heavy rock from the same height, they would hit the ground when? time the acceleration a body feels during free fall is called _____ gravity to calculate the force of gravity or weight, multiply _____ by _____ mass, gravity a quantity that measures the effects of force acting over a distance is called what? work the units of work are ____ which are newtons/ meter joules _____ is the rate at which work is done or how fast work is done power a machine makes it easier to do _____ by redirectiong or multiplying forces work _____ is the term used to descrivbe how much force or distance is multiplied by a machine mechanical advantage there are _____ types of simple machines divided into two familes, the _____ and the _____ 6, lever, inclined plane the incline plane family inclues _____,_____, and ______ wedge, inclined plane, and screw when work is done, then an object gains what? energy a stretched slingshot stores energy in the form called _____ potential energy the energy an object has because of its motion is called _____ kinetic energy the _____ states that energy cannot be created or destroyed law of conservation of energy the law of conservation of energy means that as potential energy becomes _____, kinetic energy becomes _____ decreased, increased a _____ is a disturbance that carries energy through matter or space wave the matter through which a wave travels through is called a what? medium waves that require a medium are called what? mechanical waves a type of wave that does not require a medium is called a what? electromagnetic wave most waves are caused by what? vibrating particles _____ have perpendicular motions transverse _____ waves cause the particles to vibrate parallel to the direction of motion longitudinal light waves are an example of _____ waves, and sound waves are an example of _____ waves electromagnetic/transverse, longitudinal the highest point on a transverse wave is called a what? crest the lowest point on a transverse wave is called a what? trough the height of the wave is known as the _____ and indicates the _____ of the wave amplitude, intensity the distance from one crest to another crest i called the what? wavelength the number of vibrations of a wave each second is known as the _____ frequency to measure a wave's speed, you multiply _____ by _____ frequency by wavelength _____ occurs when waves bounce off of a surface reflection _____ occurs when waves bend around a surface diffraction _____ occurs when waves bend througha surface refraction _____ occurs when two waves meet and add or cancel energies interference all sounds are caused by what? vibrating matter the loundess of a song is determined by the energy of a wave called its what? intensity the loudness of a sound is measured in units called what? decibels the highness or lowness of a sound is called the what? frequency the pitch is caused by the _____ of the vibrating body frequency when the body vibrates quickly, the sound we hear is what? a high pitch _____ gives every instrument its unique sound and allows musicians to play chords resonance _____ occurs when the sound is amplified by the two objects that are vibrating at the same frequency resonance in order to hear, sounds cause the _____ to vibrate. these vibrations are transferred to the _____ by the bones of the middle ear where nerve endings send a message to the _____ eardrum, cochlea, brain light can be described as a _____ or a _____. this is called the duality of light wave, particle in the particle model of light, packets of energy are called _____ photons the brightness of light depends upon a light wave's _____, but the enrgy of a light wave depends on its _____ amplitude, frequency the range of light waves emitted from a luminous source is called the _____ spectrum name the eight regions of the electromagnetic spectrum in order from longest to shortest wavelengths radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet the region of light that we see is called the _____ visible light, ROYGBIV- colors a type of wave that does not require a medium is called a what? electromagnetic wave most waves are caused by what? vibrating particles _____ have perpendicular motions transverse _____ waves cause the particles to vibrate parallel to the direction of motion longitudinal light waves are an example of _____ waves, and sound waves are an example of _____ waves electromagnetic/transverse, longitudinal the highest point on a transverse wave is called a what? crest the lowest point on a transverse wave is called a what? trough the height of the wave is known as the _____ and indicates the _____ of the wave amplitude, intensity the distance from one crest to another crest i called the what? wavelength the number of vibrations of a wave each second is known as the _____ frequency to measure a wave's speed, you multiply _____ by _____ frequency by wavelength _____ occurs when waves bounce off of a surface reflection _____ occurs when waves bend around a surface diffraction _____ occurs when waves bend througha surface refraction _____ occurs when two waves meet and add or cancel energies interference light waves shorter than visible light are called _____, and light waves longer than visible light are called _____ ultraviolet, infrared the law of reflection states that the angle of reflected light _____ the angle of incident light equals white light is made up of _____ colors seven a green plant only reflects _____ light green when light hits a boundary at an angle, it bends or _____ refracts _____ are cruved pieces of glass that bend light to make images bigger or smaller lenses a _____ can bend white light and separate it into colors of the rainbow prism unit for work joules unit for power watts unit for force newtons units for potential energy joules units for kinetic energy joules units for efficiency percent units for wavelength hertz the sum of all matter and energy that exists that ever existed and will ever exist universe a huge ball of hot gas that emits light star a collection of millions of billions of stars bound together by gravity galaxy a unit of distance equal to the distance light travels in one year light year the gas and dust located between the stars in a galaxy instellar matter a group of galaxies bound by gravity cluster a shift towards the red end of the spectrum in the observed spectal lines of stars or galazies red shift a scientific theory that states that the universe began 10 billion to 20 billion years ago in an enormous explosion big bang theory type of galaxy that is sprial shaped, has arms that contain gas and dust, and contains new stars, giving the galazy a blueish color spiral galaxy type of galaxy that is spherical shaped, contains little amounts of gas and dust, and contains old stars, giving the galaxy a reddish color elliptical galaxy type of galaxy that doesn't have a defined shape or structure, may contain a little amount of gas and dust, and may be a lrage cloud of interstellar matter that never became stars irregular galaxy the thinnest layer of the earth crust the layer of rock between the earth's crush and its core mantle the center of a planetary body, such as the earth core the thin outer shell of the earth, consisting of the crust and the ridged upper mantle lithosphere zone of the mantle beneath the lithosphere that consists of slowly flowing solid rock asthenosphere molten rock with the earth magma process where a tectonic plate dives benath another plate and into the asthenosphere subduction a crack in the earth created when rocks on either side of a break move fault continents once made up one super large continent...by alfred wegner pangea two plates move apart and create a gap between them. magma rises and cools forming new lithospheric rock. form mountain rainges and mid-oceanic ridges. valley in between is a rift valley divergent boundaries old lithosphere is destroyed while a new lithosphere enters. formed through subduction. ocean trenches form along boundaries between two ocean plates or between an oceanic plate and a continental plate. colliding continental plates create mountains. plates come together. convergent boundaires as plates moves, they scrape up against each other. the breaks they cause are called faults. rocks move horizontally past each other at faults transform fault boundary are along a fault where slippage first occurs, starting an earthquake focus point on the earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake epicenter primary waves; longitudinal waves generated by an earthquake p waves secondary waves; transverse waves generated by an earthquake s waves a seismic wave that travels along the earth's surface surface waves study of earthwuakes and related phenomena seismology scale that expresses the relative magnitude of an earthquake richter scale opening through which molten rock flows onto the earth's surface vent type of volcano that has a gently sloping mountain, one of the larger volcanoes, and contains layers of lava shield volcano type of volcano that has more steeper slopes, slightly smaller and taller, contains layers of cinders and lava composite volcano type of volcano that has very steep sloped, small based and very tall, and contains layers of cinder cinder cone volcano type of volcano that is underwater seamount volcano rock formed from cooled and hardended magma or lava igneous rock a natural, inorganic solid with definite chemical composition and a charachteristic internal structure mineral change in the physical form or chemical composition of rock materials exposed at the earth's surface weathering