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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 geologic principles
1. Original Horizontality
2. Stratigraphic superposition
3. Unconformities
4. Cross-cutting
5. Inclusions
unconformity between parallel starta or lave flows. most are very irregular surfaces, and piences of the underlying rock are often included in the strata above them.
angular unconformity
unconformity between nonparallel strata
unconformity gormed when stratified sedimentary rocks are deposited on eroded igneous or metamorphic rock
rock surface that represents a gap in the geologic record
rocks on both sides of these planar features fomred in a continual sequence
Modes of preservation
1.preservation without alteration (frozen, mummified, entrapment- liquid)
2.preservation with alteration (prevalent mode of preservation: permineralization, replacement, carbonization, recrystallization)
3.Casts and Molds
4.Trace fossils
ie- petrified wood- water and chemicals can go through
occur when plant debris or soft-bodies animals die and are buried. remains are decompressed and the volatile constituents are released, leaving a thin carbon silhouette behind.
occures to creat a fossil when the substances that comprise the original organism (shell and bone) are converted to a more stable substance. ie- conversion of aragonite, a less stable form of calciium carbonate into calcite, a more stable from which occurs in same shell fish
examination of the fossil record indicates that as organisms evolved the number of species increased.
Phyletic gradualism
hypothesis involving gradual changes in organisms over a long period of time and involving numerous generations
Punctuated equilibrium
no chnage occurs for extended periods and then, due to some sudden environmental change, a species must evolve rapidly to adjust to the new conditions
fossil assemblage
group of preserved organisms that cohabited a specific place at the same time
geologic map
topographic map with added info about the location and orientation of rock units and structures present in the area.
cross section
topographic profile with added info about the rock units and structures, depicted with the smae colores and symbols used in the geologic map
quaternary map
graphic representation of the distribution and identity of unconsolidated sediments which were deposited during the quaternary period
surficial map
combination of both the geologic and quaternary maps and shows the surface material whether it is bedrock or sediment
study of the rock layers within the earth