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101 Cards in this Set

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climate is equatorial tropical humid diurnal
Tropical Rain Forest
found in lowlands between 10 degrees N and S
Tropical Rain Forest
radiation is intense so emergent plants conserve water while understory plants do not
Tropical Rain Forest
soils are old and weathered (oxisols)
Tropical Rain Forest
- forests not supported in extremely nutrient poor areas. Ex: mogotes
Tropical Rain Forest
Epiphytes are common, even more common in the mountainous regions of the tropics.
Tropical Rain Forest
Lowland rainforest followed by submountaine. Followed by mountaine forest, then cloud forest, after that into dwarf, then elfin
Tropical Rain Forest
Paramo is a tropical alpine grassland
Tropical Rain Forest
Germination niche - conditions necessary for germination to happen
Tropical Rain Forest
Mountain passes are higher in the tropics. A mountain pass is the lowest point between two valleys
Tropical Rain Forest
Landslides, very weathered old soils that are really wet and often some component of human disturbance causing a large landslide. Common in tropical mountain areas.
Tropical Rain Forest
Africa - most of the big tropic mountains are in arid zones of Africa - Congo, Kenya, Cameroon, Tanzania, and Madagascar
Tropical Rain Forest
Corpse flower- smells like rotting flesh, pollinated by flies, flowers only once every 10 years.
Tropical Rain Forest
Mass fruiting - all individuals of a species fruit at the same time. An evolutionary response of pressure of their fruit being eaten
Tropical Rain Forest
Hummingbirds - lots of them in the tropics. They pollinate a lot of flowered plants (scentless), as well as Night flying moths, bats (have a stale odor), beetles (strong scent but not much color), bees (go for nectar/ high sugar and UV), and the butterfly (low sugar nectar/pretty daytime flowers)
Tropical Rain Forest
All ecosystems in which C4 grasses potentially dominate the herbaceous stratum and where woody plants, usually fire-tolerant, vary in density from widely scattered individuals to closed woodland broken now and again by drainage line grasslands.
Savannas
10-25 degrees N and S of the equator
Savannas
Climate is warm with seasonal rainfall (in winter) About 18 degrees Celsius year round. There is at least one dry month with less than 60 mm of rain.
Savannas
Oxisols -found in savannas and tropical forests, red because of aluminum
Savannas
Vertisols - high in clay, low in key nutrients, tend to be acidic, when it dries it cracks and forms mosaics.
Savannas
Entisols - sandier, least developed, low in phosphorus, low fertility, nutrient poor
Savannas
Alfisols - drier, high in quartz, more related to calcification than laterization, lighter soil, not well developed
Savannas
Nutrient deficient or wet soils can cause edaphic savannas
Savannas
Most trees don't like to grow with their roots in ponded water. Only trees adapted to having their roots in water can survive. Impermeable layer that does not allow water to get through causing it to pond
Savannas
Poor soils lead to success of nitrogen fixers
Savannas
Woodland Savanna - evenly spaced trees - consequence of competition between grass and trees
Parkland savannas - groves within grassy matrix
Grassland - predominately grass, generally drier and fine soils
Shrubland - often grazing response
Savannas
Grasses have competitive advantage in low moisture. Grasses have denser, finer root systems. Trees have coarser deeper route systems - they are adapted to going for water deeper
Savannas
C4 photosynthesis uses more efficient path for high temps. Normal photosynthesis is C3
Savannas
Phenology (timing of natural events) follows climatic pattern.
Savannas
Fire is an essential part of savanna community. Fires are frequent, not very hot, and fast moving. Bad enough to kill seedlings. Vegetation shows many adaptations to fire: thick bark, high limbs, sprouting - shrubs with buds underground, meristem
Savannas
Grazers are a predominant feature of savannas
Savannas
Termites are important decomposers. Major nutrient mover. Earthworms and ants are also important in moving nutrients around.
Savannas
Interesting savanna with impermeable laterite crust known as arecife found in Venezuela
Savannas
Edaphic savanna - soil based savanna
Savannas
Hyper seasonal palm savannas - get wet in summer, very wet - even if there is not a layer of impermeable rock layer - palm trees do well. Grasses and palms handle it the best.
Savannas
Esteros - wetland - big open areas that flood in the wet season, they dry out and tend to be treeless, but grasses come during the dry periods.
Savannas
Caatinga - drier areas of zonobiome II - scrubland interspersed with grasslands.
Savannas
Pines can handle infertile soil. Infertile soils means trees grow slowly which will slower the time of canopy, which increases the probability that fires will come along.
Savannas
Sahel - band in northern part of Africa - transition band. Sensitive area because it is on the brink of being a desert and scrubland grassland
Savannas
Great Pantanal - tropical hydro biome in Brazil, in wet season series of lakes separated by forests.
Savannas
Mamgrove swamps are halo-helobiomes. Partially submerged trees with adaptations to grow in salty wet situation.
Savannas
vivaparous seedlings - germinate while still attached to the tree. It Germinates and starts to grow and then it drops.
Savannas
Psammobiomes I and II - sandy - on the coast - with exception of little beaches and palms, there aren't huge dune systems.
Savannas
Potential evaporation exceeds precipitation
hot deserts
20-30 degrees North and South
hot deserts
Precipitation is variable but less than 200 mm per year
hot deserts
Potential evapo-transpiration (correlated with temp) can be as high as 2000 mm.
hot deserts
Solar radiation is second most important factor - not may clouds, closer to equator than poles - even hotter than the tropics, because tropics have clouds and a lot of plants. Air is so dry that temperature swings from day to night can be quite great. Large diurnal shifts.
hot deserts
Soils are poorly developed and may be salty
hot deserts
Capillary action will take salts from the soil and bring it to the surface
hot deserts
Usually clay brings wetter soil, but in deserts it dries it
hot deserts
Hamadas - rocky deserts where the fine particles are blown away - pebbles, boulders and rocks. Often stained red due to manganese oxides. So dry they can be water repellant. Not conducive to plant growth. Both adapted to extreme aridity and salt. Not a lot of vegetation
hot deserts
Gravel Deserts - known as gibber plains or reg - lot of wind action, not much vegetation, red oxidized look on the top. Places where all this material has developed in place. They are actually developed from the underlying parent material
hot deserts
Sandy deserts are known as erg. Wind, dunes, iron oxidized in sand, Hillocks created by vegetation are called nebkha dunes. Plants that are adapted to being buried.
hot deserts
Dry Valleys are known as wadis, washes, and arroyos - when it does rain it collects. Many of the washes are leftover from previous periods of the Pleistocene that once were wetter in that area. It is a relic of the past time. Salts won't be there as much. Some residual soil moisture. When rains come, the soil can become hydrophobic so the water runs off and actually can cause a flood.
hot deserts
Shallow depressions where clay collects are called pans, sebka, daya, chott. Clay soils tend to crack a lot - not good for plants. One vegetation that can survive are ephemerals. Quick life cycle.
hot deserts
Oases are found at springs and seeps. Dense vegetation
hot deserts
Desert plant adaptations are primarily to water. Spacing of plants is one adaptation. Shallow roots are another adaptation - shallow roots are beneficial because they capture water quickly.
hot deserts
Drought escapers are annual ephemerals (therophytes) - live as if there is no drought by staying as seeds until conditions are right
hot deserts
Drought evaders store energy and water but drop leaves. Perennial shrubs, perennial ephemerals/geophytes. Bulb plants. When conditions are good they flower and photosynthesize. The bulb stays under there alive
hot deserts
Drought endurers conserve water and do not become dormant - extensive roots, hairs on leaves to reduce wind and water loss, waxy leaves, color that reflects light and reduces evaporation
hot deserts
Drought resisters store water and use it sparingly. Aloes, Agaves
hot deserts
CAM photosynthesis separates carbon fixation temporarily. It goes on at night instead of the day - reverse stomata function
hot deserts
productivity is lowest of all zonobiomes
hot deserts
Cryptobiotic - crusts made up of lichens and mosses - held together by fungi. Takes a long time to develop but keep the soil together
hot deserts
This is Los Angeles' zonobiome
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Hot dry summers, cool wet winters. 275-900 mm of precipitation, rarely freezes.
Sclerophyllic Woodland
30-40 degrees N and S on west coasts of continents.
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Coastal sage shrub and chaparral (N America) , matorral (S America), maquis and garrigue (Europe), mallee (Australia), fynbos and renosterisos (Africa)
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Sclerophyllous leaves are a water conservation mechanism
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Pyrophyte endemics - plants that only grows after a fire
Fire annual - abundant after fires
Fire perennials - grow a few years after fire, then drop
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Human occupy and exploit the area around the Mediterranean zones consequently leading to extinction of the oak forests. Used for timber.
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Dense Litter layer - accumulated dead stuff. (goes away with fire
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Humble current - current along the ocean
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Chaparral - thicket of evergreen oaks
Sclerophyllic Woodland
Manzanita - characteristic bark, shiny red slippery bark.
Sclerophyllic Woodlands
transitional between subtropical and temperature regions
Laurel Forests
40 degrees N
Laurel Forests
warm temperate humid climate
Laurel Forests
subzonobiomes found on east and west coasts
Laurel Forests
Lauriphyllic trees have shiny, water-conserving leaves
Laurel Forests
2 things ocean does to climate - stabilize it and provides extra moisture
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Total precipitation - 800-1400 mm a year
Temperature - -30 to 30 Celsius
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Soil development takes one of two routes - dark rich organic soil, high humus content -very fertile and not acidic. Alphisol and Ultisol
Temperate Deciduous Forests
loose leaves on winter time (deciduous
Temperate Deciduous Forests
There is not a water conservation mechanism. The other time they loose out is if they have no winter at all. No winter and it is moist, then why loose leaves. The third reason they loose out is longer winters
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Insects are primary consumers of plants.
Temperate Deciduous Forests
marcescent leaves - dead leaves that the tree holds onto.
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Literfall is major route of nutrient cycling.
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Day length cues leaf loss
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Moderately dry and cold. Drier than forest biomes, wetter then deserts with exception of cold deserts.
Temperate Grasslands
Up to 85% of biomass is underground.
Temperate Grasslands
Rainshadows (in shadows of mountains) and continental effects create climate
Temperate Grasslands
Calcification forms mollisols.
Temperate Grasslands
Soil fauna is important to nutrient cycling.
Temperate Grasslands
Dustbowl - 1930s in southern Midwestern states. More rain than normal that year. The sod was broken. Decreased diversity, climatic changes - caused the Dustbowl
Temperate Grasslands
Ephemeral - rainfall in spring
Temperate Grasslands
Taklimakan - driest desert in central Asia
Temperate Grasslands
Takiars - clay, bare, dry cracking surface
Temperate Grasslands
Halophyllic desert - salt - pickle weed
Temperate Grasslands
Jipson desert - lot of calcium, annual plants
Temperate Grasslands