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42 Cards in this Set

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What is GFR?
Glomerular filtration rate
What is inulin?
naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants not metabolized in the body but passes from blood to urine. Used to measure GRF.
Most commonly used test for GFR?
CREATININE TEST
What happens to urea levels in blood as renal function declines
increases
other causes of increased urea
muscle mass and protein intake
What is azotemia?
medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea, creatinin
How is abnormal kidney function determined?
lab tests such as BUN & creatinine tests
what is uremia?
toxic effects of abnormally high concentrations of nitrogenous substances in the blood as a result of the kidney’s failure to expel these waste products
What is oliguria?
low output of urine
What is pericarditis?
inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart)
what is a syndrome?
A group of symptoms that consistently occur together
what are 3 clinical symptoms (or syndromes) of renal dsiease
*occult hematuria
*occult proteinuria
*urinary tract infections
What are the top 2 types of bacterial infections?
most common - respiratory
second - urinary
What are 3 general types of UTI's
*asymtomatic bacteriuria
*lower UTIs
*upper UTIs
What types of UTIs are most serious
upper UTIs
What can kinds of things can cause urinary retention and obstruction ( a common cause of acute and chronic renal failure)?
Developmental defects
kidney stones
pregnancy
scar tissue tumors
neurological disorders
Enlarged prostate
Why is stasis of urine a problem?
*infection
*stones
Why is backpressure of urine a problem?
*slows renal blood flow
*causes destruction of renal tissue
What is hydroureter
distention of the ureter with urine or watery fluid, due to obstruction
What is hydronephrosis
swelling of one kidney due to a backup of urine.
How does CRF progress?
*1st asymptomatic
*gradual loss; mild to severe
*no seen symptoms until only 10% of kidney function remains
What is ATN?
Acute tubular necrosis is a kidney disorder involving damage to the tubule cells of the ... Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is usually caused by lack of oxygen
What are 3 types of acute renal failure(ARF)?
* prerenal - decreased blood
* postrenal - stones, tumor, prostrate
* intrinsic - ischemia, toxins, intratubular obstruction
What is Analgesic nephropathy
Analgesic nephropathy is injury to the kidney caused by analgesic medications such as aspirin, phenacetin, and paracetamol.
What is Reflux nephropathy
Reflux nephropathy is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged by the backward flow of urine into the kidney
What other disease is associated with reflux nephropathy?
diabetes
what is obstructive uropathy
Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocke
What is polycystic kidney disease.
Polycystic kidney disease is a kidney disorder passed down through families in which many cysts form in the kidneys
Name some causes of CRF?
STONES and the 4 above disorders
What is (BPH)?
(BPH) stands for benign prostatic hyperplasia which means a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland
Where does (BPH) form?
an increase in the number of cells in the part of the prostate gland that surrounds the urethra, this growth is benign, or noncancerous.
symptoms of bph
Trouble starting a urine stream or making more than a dribble
Passing urine often, especially at night
Feeling that the bladder has not fully emptied
A strong or sudden urge to urinate
A weak or slow urine stream
Stopping and starting again several times while passing urine
Pushing or straining to begin passing urine.
Name 3 treatments of BPH treatment
Watchful waiting (regular follow-up with your doctor)
Drug therapy (Alpha-one blockers or 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors)
Surgery.
3 factors protective against prostrate cancer (natural)
*lycopene
*selenium
*Vitamin E
Chemoprevention?
5 alpha-reductase inhibitors
4 mechanisms used to detect BPH
Digital rectal exam (DRE)
Prostate specific antigen (PSA test)
Rectal ultrasound or (Ultrsonagraphy)
Urine flow study
Cystoscopy.(a test that allows your doctor to look at the interior lining of the bladder and the urethra.)
Gleason scores
Cancers with a higher Gleason score are more aggressive and have a worse prognosis.
1 - resembles normal prostate tissue. The glands are small, well-formed, and closely packed.
5 - The tissue does not have recognizable glands
What is BPH?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy, is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland
prtects against BPH
lycopene
selenium
vitamin E
Treatment of BPH
Watchful waiting (regular follow-up with your doctor)
Drug therapy (Alpha one blockers or 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors)
Surgery.
Diagnosis of BPH
Digital rectal exam (DRE)
Prostate specific antigen test (PSA test)
Rectal ultrasound
Urine flow study
Radiologic exam
Cystoscopy.
Gleason scores
1-5
1 = well differentiated (like normal)
5 = poor differentiation (tumor like one mass)