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50 Cards in this Set

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DNA sequence that codes for RNA
Gene
The precise position of a gene on the chromosome
Locus
Alternative form of a gene
Allele
A cell or organism with one complete set of chromosomes
Haploid
A cell or organism with two complete sets of chromosomes
Diploid
Chromosomes that play a role in sex determination
Sex Chromosomes
All Chromosomes other than sex chromosomes
Autosomes
A representation of the chromosomes complement of a cell or organism, usually ordered by size
Karyotye
Chromosomes that have the same genetic structure and loci
Homologous Chromosomes
The physical location of a gene on a chromosomes is called its?
Locus
Chromosomes are characterized by what criteria
1) Size
2) Position of Centromere
-Metacentric
-Submetacentric
-Acrocentric
-Telocentric
3) Banding Patterns
Special staining procedures reveal specific, reproducible and unique patterns that distinguish chromosomes from each other
Banding Patterns
Chromosomes number is unrelated to
Size or the biological complexity of an organism
Two main purposes of cell division
1. Asexual production
2. Multicellularity
It is the means by which some unicellular organisms produce new individuals
Asexual reproduction
Binary Fission
cell division which occurs most in prokaryotes
Somatic Cell division
-may be haploid or diploid,
-reproduce by a process termed mitosis
Germ Cell Division
-Diploid
-Undergo Meiosis, which yields haploid gametes
Two steps of Cell Cycle
Interphase
Mitosis
A cell that is not actively dividing is said to be in
interphase
The three Phases of Interphase
G1
S
G2
Interphase- G1
Synthesis or proteins and RNA
Interphase- S
Synthesis of DNA
Interphase- G2
Synthesis of Proteins and RNA
The total time for interphase varies with the -,-,-.
Organism
Cell Type
Environmental Conditions
Most variation in interphase seen in
G1
Late in G1, the cell will follow one of two paths
1) It withdraws from the cycle and enters the G0 stage.
2) It becomes committed to initiate DNA synthesis and complete the cycle.
Cells in this stage either
Postpone making a decision to divide
-or mad the decision to never divide
G-sub-0
When cell becomes committed to initiate DNA synthesis and complete the cycle it has reached.
Restriction Point
After the G1 Phase the cells advance to ____phase, where chromosomes are replicated
S Phase
At the end of S Phase, a cell has twice as many ___ as there are ___ in the G1 Phase
Chromatids
Chromosomes
Usually the shortest stage of the life cycle.
Mitosis
Mitosis occurs in ___cells and ___development
Somatic cells
early germline dev
In, mitosis, a diploid cell divides once to produce two diploid daughter cells names
Karyokinesis
Cytokinesis
Stages of Mitosis
Prophase
Prometaphase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Events of Interphase
Inside Cell:
Two Centrosomes with centriole pairs,
Nuclear envelope
Chromosomes
Events of Prophase
=Chromatin-shortens and thickens to form daughter chromosomes
=Nuclear Envelope-breaks down & nucleolus disappears
=Centrosomes-which were replicated in Interphase, migrates to opposite cell poles
=Spindle apparatus is formed, composed of microtubules.
Are formed by rapid polymerization of tubulin proteins
Microtubules
What are the three types of spindle microtubles
Aste, Polar, Kinetochore
Important for positioning of the spindle apparatus
Aster
Help to Push the poles away from each other
Polar Microtubules
Attach to the _, which are bound to the centromere of each individual chromosomes
Kinetochore Microtubules
Prometaphase Steps
=Spindle Fibers interact with the sister chromatids
=Kinetochore microtubules grow from the two poles (sister chromatid is captured)
=The two kinetochores on a pair of sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore MTs on opposite poles.
Metaphase Steps
=Chromosomes reach their maximum contraction
=Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate.
Anaphase Steps
=Contromeric Region divides longitudinally and paired sister chromatids seperate
=each chromatid, now an individual chromasome, is linked to only one pole.
=Kinetochore Mts shorten
-chromosomes move to opposite poles
=Polar MTs lengthen(poles move away from each other)
The movement of sister chromatids to opposite poles is aided by specifics proteins, termed
Motor Proteins
Telophase Steps
Daughter chromosomes reach their respective poles.
-They uncoil and become diffuse chromatin once again
Nuclear Memb reforms( two separate nuclei)
Spindle fibers disappear.
In animal cells= A cell cleavage furrow develops

In plants cells = A cell plate develops
Cytokinesis
Significance of Mitosis
It maintains a constant chromosome number...46---divided into 2 cells with 46....etc
Follows Karyokinesis

However, in many instances it may be deferred or totally lacking--Coenocytic Cells
Cytokinesis