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60 Cards in this Set

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Nucleus (impotance)
Storage of DNA
Alleles
Different versions of the same gene
Genes
1 gene- 1 protein recipe
Chromosomes
One piece of DNA
Diploid (2n) cells
Chromosomes in pairs (most cells)
Mitosis
Makes an exact copy of a cell(hapoloid or diploid)
Haploid (n) Cells
Single chromsomes, sex cells, egg and sperm combine - zygote
Meiosis
1 diploid cell- 4 haploids
n
Haploid - the number of chromroes that exist together
Spermtogenesis
The process by which sperm are produced in male animals
Oogenesis
The process by which gametes are produced in female animals
Asexual Vs. Sexual reproduction
Sexual is more common becuase through asexual exact copies are made not showing any variation (like cloning) and sexual reproduction shows a lot of variation
Gregor Mendel
Studied heredity
Pistil
Female reproductive part of a flower, consisting of an ovary, style,and stigma
Ovary
The lower part of the pistil that produces eggs in ovules
Stigma
A small mark, spot, or pore, such as the respiratory spiracle of an insect or an eyespot in certain algae.
Style
The usually slender part of a pistil, situated between the ovary and the stigma
Stamen
Male reproductive part of a flower
Filament
The stalk that bears the anther in a stamen
Anther
Sac at the tip of a stamen in which pollen grains form
Self- Fertilization
fertilization effected by union of ova with pollen or sperm from the same individual
Cross-Fertilization
fertilization in which the gametes are produced by separate individuals or sometimes by individuals of different kinds
Purebred
bred from members of a recognized breed, strain, or kind without outbreeding over many generations
Hybrid
The offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock, especially the offspring produced by breeding plants or animals of different varieties, species, or races.
Genertaions
p, f1 f2
P generation
The parental generation
F1 Generation
The offspring of the P generation the first filial generation
F2 Generation
Offspring of the F1 generation plants the second filial generation
Phenotype
Physical traits
Dominant
The expressed form of the trait
Recessive
The trait that is not expressed when the dominant form of the trait is present
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism as indicated by the alleles
Homozygous dominant
If the two alleles of a particular gene present in an individual are dominant (the same)
Heterozygous
If the alleles of a particular gene present in an individual are different
Homozygous recessive
If the two alleles of a particular gene present in an individual are recessive (the same)
Principle of Segregation
Two alleles for a trait segreagte (sperate) when gametes are formed
Indepentdent Assortment
The alleles of different genes serperate independently of the alleles fpr flower color
Linked Genes
any pair of genes that tend to be transmitted together (ex. red hair and freckles)
Punnett Squares
Diagrams that rpedict the expected outcome of a genetic cross by considering all possible cobinations of gametes in the cross
Dihybrid Cross
hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
Genotypic ratio
Genes (homzygous dominant:heterozygous:homozygous dominant)
Phenotypic ratio
Physical (all dominant :all recessive)
Sample size
The more people the alleles are collected from the more the predicted/assumed ratios will be correct/exact
Homologous chromosomes
Exist in pairs cause tehy contain the same gene (not always the same version or allele)
Sister chromatids
Exact copy of a chromsome connected at the centromere
Genotypic ratio
Genes (homzygous dominant:heterozygous:homozygous dominant)
Phenotypic ratio
Physical (all dominant :all recessive)
Sample size
The more people the alleles are collected from the more the predicted/assumed ratios will be correct/exact
Homologous chromosomes
Exist in pairs cause tehy contain the same gene (not always the same version or allele)
Sister chromatids
Exact copy of a chromsome connected at the centromere
Tetrads
A group of four chromsomes 2 pairs of sister chromatids
Crossing over
Occurs when portions of a chromatid on one homologous chromosome are broken and exchanged with the corresponding portions on one of the chromatids of the other homologous chromsome
Nondisjunction
The failure of paired chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate and go to different cells during meiosis.
Monosomy
chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
Trisomy (examples)
The condition of having three copies of a given chromosome in each somatic cell rather than the normal number of two.
(ex. Each cell usually has 46 but in trisomy this is increased to 47. )
Translocation
Movement of organic compounds within a plant from a source to a sink
XX
Female
XY
Male
XO
Genetic Code for Turner's Syndrome
XXY
abnormal complement of sex hormones in a male resulting in Klinefelter's syndrome