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72 Cards in this Set

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Purine linkage (1-9 linkage)
Name linkage
Pyrimidine Linkage (1-1 Linkage)
Name linkage
Unit structure of DNA. Composed of nitrogen base, sugar, and phosphoric acid
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Chemical unit of heritable information
Erwin Chargaff
Described fundamental ratios of nitrogenous bases in DNA
Tetranucleotide Hypothesis
4 bases are present in equal amounts. Tested by Chargaff
Chargaff's Rules
#A=#T, #G=#C
Rosalind Franklin
Used x-ray diffraction to obtain pictures of DNA molecule. Recognized DNA as helical
Periodicity of DNA
Bases are 3.4Å apart with 10 bases per turn.
Model of DNA
- Right handed helix
- 1 complete turn= 34Å
- Diameter= 20Å
- Space between pairs= 3.4Å
- 10 bases per turn
- Antiparallel
- Major and minor grooves alternate
Avery, Macleod, and McCarty
-Made the TRANSFORMING PROPERTY- heritable properties are carried on DNA
-Used mice to show that DNA is capable of transformation
Hershey and Chase
-DNA is the bio-molecule of heredity
-Used bacteriophage to show that DNA is genetic material
-Protein is not the genetic material
Erwin Chargaff
Base composition/ chemistry of DNA
Watson and Crick
Chemical components, physical structure, and molecular form of DNA
Classic form of DNA
Beta form
DNA Sequencing
The determination of the precise sequence of nucleotides in a sample of DNA
Common method of DNA sequencing
Chain termination
Chain termination occurs with
Needed for DNA Sequencing
1) ssDNA template
2) Primer
3) DNA polymerase
4) dNTP's
5) Appropriate dideoxynucleotides
Uses electric field to seperate fragments based on size and length
Slows down replication
Alpha form of DNA
- High slat, dehydrated conditions
- More compact- 11 bp/turn
- 23Å diameter
Z form of DNA
- Zig zag conformaion
- No major grooves
- Left handed helix
Function of DNA
Genotype- form of genetic info
Function of RNA
Intermediate of phenotype, sometimes genotype
Bases of DNA
A=T, C=G
Bases of RNA
A=U, C=G
Sugar of DNA
2' deoxyribose
Sugar of RNA
Unit structure of DNA
Unit structure of RNA
Gross structure of DNA
Always double stranded helical
Gross structure of RNA
Generally single stranded linear, when genotype, can be double sranded helical
Total number of nucleotides present in an organism that constitutes genetic information; diploid content of genetic information
Genome Complexity
Organizaion of nucleotide; biological properties
Genome Size
Number of nucleotides
Reassosciation Kinetics
Isolate DNA -> Fragment into small peices -> Heat/Denature -> Cool/Renature -> Fragments reassociate by complimentarity
Reassociation is dependent on
Genome size and complexity
Fast Reassosciation
Short repetitive sequences
Slow Reassociation
Longer lengths of DNA with increased complexity
Cot curve shape
Genome Complexity
Cot curve length
Genome size
Highly Repetitive DNA
- Non-coding
- Rapid reassociation
- 5-10 bp in length
- 5-10% of genome
- Around centromeres and telomeres
- Maintains chromosome morphology
Moderately Repetitive DNA
- Non-coding
- 150-500 bp in length
- 5-10% of genome
- Repeated 700-900,000 times
- Non coding- mutation buffers
Unique DNA
- Coding- genotype
- 1,000-15,000 bp in length
- 35,000 genes in humans
- 1-5% of total nucleotides
The amount of DNA contained in the haploid genome of a species
C-value Paradox
Excess DNA is present that does not seem to be essential to the development or evolutionary divergence of eukaryotes
G2 Phase
Cells prepare for division
G1 Phase
Cells sit- DNA is stringy
S/R Phase
- DNA makes copies and sister chromatids
- DNA synthesis and replication
M Phase
Semi-conservative Replication
Watson and Crick proposed form. Following synthesis of the new strands, each parent strand links with a new strand in complimentary fashion
Conservative Replication
Synthesis follows Watson and Crick's model however by some mechanism, each parental strand reforms together while the 2 new strands also link together
Dispersive Replication
Each parental strand goes through a cleavage process followed by reforming of all strands together
Replicated Homologs
Sister chromatids
Site of replication
Arthur Kornberg
DNA is universal/ highly conserved
Replication always occurs in which direction?
5' -> 3'
DNA Gyrase
- Member of the family of topoisomerases
- Reduces super-cooling of DNA
Opens DNA strands making them ssDNA
Lays down an RNA primer
DNA Polymerase
Binds RNA primer at 3' OH and makes new strands
Joins together the newly synthesized strands of DNA by sealing the phosphodiester bonds
Fills in any gaps created at tips of the 3' ends in the old DNA strand
DNA Replication
1) Helicase binds to DNA strands and pull them apart
2) Primase recognizes origin points, binds to ssDNA, lays down RNA primer
3) Synthesis in 5' -> 3' direction
4) DNA pol removes primers and replaces them with DNA
5) Ligase fills gaps between fragments
6) Telomerase binds at 3' end to remove unmatched pairs