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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Theory of pangenesis
proposed by darwin, proposed that cell of developing organs produces gemmules.
Theory of preformationism
Little humans developed in one of the sex cells
Blending theory
That the characteristics are blended together generation after generations
Why was mendel succesful?
he choose a very suitable organism, that were pure breeding. That showed discontinous characteristics at a time, and he used quantitative form of analysis
that the pollen and egg are from different plants
pollen and egg are from the same plant
mendels first law of segregation
during gamete formation, the paired factors segregate randomly so that half of the gametes receive one factor and half of the gamete received the other
what is a genotype?
the specific allelic composotion of an individual
the physical apperance of an individual, and its the product of genotype , environment, and other genes
test cross
an organism with known phenotype but unkown genotype is crossed with an organism that has the recessive phenotype(homozygous)
mendel secound law of independent assortment
durring gamete formation, the secregation of any pair of hereditary determination is independent of the segregation of other pairs
number of possible gemetes
number of different genotype in zygote
number of different phenotype produced
proportion of homozygous in F2
Autosomal dominant
-have at least one allele thats dominant
-found in every generation
-two affected parents can have an unaffected child
-unaffected parents produce unaffected children
Autosomal recessive
-skips generations
-has to have both recessive alleles to express the characteristic
-two affected parents can't produce an unaffected child.
-two unaffected parents can produce the affected child
X-linked recessive
-skips generations
-most affected are males, that receive the X from mothers
-Daughters get the affected X from mother or father
x linked dominant
-doesn' skip generation
-sons get affected from mothers
-daughters get affected from mother or father
Y likned traits
-only affects the males
-and males get it from there father
the proportion of individuals with a specific genotype who manifest the corresponding phenotype.
the degree to which the penetance gene is phenotypically expressed
an organism whose phenotype has been modified by a special environment to resemble the phenotype of a differnt organism
-the drue thalidomine that copied a genetic disorter
product rule
the probability of the occurance of independent events is the product of their respective probability
-Uses the word AND
sum rule
the probability of the occurance of one of several mutally exclusive events is the sum of their respective probability
-the word OR
incomplete dominance
the phenotype of the heterozygote is INTERMEDIATE between that of the homozygous
-also termed partial dominance
the phenotype of the heterozygous is a mixture of the phenotype of the homozygous
-example is the M N group in blood
multiple alleles
more than 2 alleles
-ABO is an example
-AB has no antibodies, but both antigen
-O has no antigen, and both antibodies
RH factor
is inherited separately from the ABO
-The D antigen is the most common
-D means that you have the RH factor
-d means that you dont have the factor
Essential genes
those that are essential to life
non-essential genes
those that are not essential for life
recessive lethal allele
if the heterozygous state is tolerated
dominant lethal allele
if the heterozygous state leads to death
the phenomenon in which a single gene affects a # of seemingly unrelated charactes
-sickle cell anemia
the phenomenon in which a heterozygous is more virous than both of the corresponding homozygous
-also called hydrid vigor
a sequence of nucleotides that codes for RNA
the precise position of a gene on a chromosome
alternating form of a gene
closer to the end
at the end
the p arm
the short arm
q arm
the long arm
asexual reproduction
it is termed by which some unicellular organism produce new individuals
- and to accomplisgh multicellurity in many organsisms
synthesis of proteins and RNA
synthesis of DNA
synthesis of proteins and RNA