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12 Cards in this Set

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What is catabolic repression? How does it allow a bacterial cell to use glucose in preference to other sugars?>
A system of gene controls in bacterial operons in which glucose is used and the metabolism of other sugars is repressed
What role does RNA stability play in gene regulation? What controls RNA stability in eukaryotic cells?
The stability of mRNA influences gene expression by affecting the amount of mRNA available to be translated. The stability of mRNA is affected by the 5'cap, poly(A) tail, 5' UTR, the coding section
Difference between a missense mutation and a nonsense mutation?
missense mutation is a base substitution that results in a different amino acid in the protein
nonsense muation is the change from a sense codon to a nonsense codon (one that specifies and amino acid to one that specifies a stop codon)
Why do extra copies of genes cause drastic phenotypic effects?
Because it throws the balance of gene expression out of whack.
mRNAs are degraded by what>?
ribonuclease
When siRNAs are present, the rate of mRNA degradation _ and the rate of protein production_
increases, decrease
The molecular nature of transposable elements was first understood in E. coli due to the simplicity of the E. coli genome. Which of the following types of DNA contribute significantly to the genome complexity of other organisms?
SINES & LINES
Degradation of eukaryotic mRNA is generally preceded by shortening of the what?
poly(A) tail
What symbols are used to describe constitutive mutations in the lac operon
lacOc
Mutations in the lacI and lacO genes in the lactose sysrem often lead to full production of the three sturctural genes related to the lac operon even with no lactose available to the organism. such mutations would be called what?
constitutive
Regions of chromosomes that are inactivated through methylation.
CpG islands
When regions are genes become sensitive to the enzyme _ this is an indication that those regions are becoming _ active
DNase, transcriptionally