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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Acrocentric
A chromosome has two very short legs and two very long legs
Adenine
A purine nitrogenous base
Allele
a variation of a trait (alternate for of a gene)
Amino Acid
building block of proteins (20)
Amniocentesis
A prenatal diagnostic procedure. A needle is inserted into the uterus to remove a sample of amniotic fluid (containing fetal cells)to construct a chromosome chart of fetus
Anaphase
the stage of mitosis when the centromeres of replicated chromosomes are pulled apart.
Aneuploid
a cell with one or more extra or missing chromosomes
Anticodon
a three-base sequence on one loop of a tRNA complementary to mRNA codon
Antiparallel
the head to tail arrangement of the two entwined chains of the DNA double helix
Apoptosis
a form of cell death that is a normal part of growth and development.
Autosome
a non-sex determining chromosome. A human has 22 pairs of autosomes
Carbohydrate
a type of macrocolecule; sugars and starches
Carcinogen
a substance that induces cancerous changes in a cess
Cell
the fundamental unit of life
Cell Cycle
a cycle of events describing a cell's preparation for division and division itself
cell membrane
a structure consisting of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that forms a selective barrier around a cell
centrioles
structures sonsisting of micotubules oriented at right angles to each other near the nucleus that begin to form the spindle during mitosis
centromere
the largest constriction in a chromosome, located at a specific site in each chromosome type
checkpoint
a part of the sell cycle where a protein functions to control the process
chorionic villus sampling
a prenatal diagnosis technique that analyzes chromosomes in chorionic villus cells, which, like the fetus descend from the fertilized ovum
chromatid
a single, very long DNA molecule and its associated proteins forming half of a replicated chromosome
chromatin
DNA and its associated histone proteins
chromosome
a structure within a cell's nucleus that carries genes. A chromosome consists of a continuous molecule of DNA and proteins wrapped around it
codominant
a herterozygote in which both alleles are fully expressed
codon
a continuous triplet of mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid
complementary
the pairs of DNA bases that bond together
conservative
the new strand is half old and half new
crossing over
an event during prophase I when homologs exchange parts, adding to genetic variability.
cytokinesis
division of cellular parts other than DNA at the end of mitosis
cytoplasm
cellular contents other than organelles
cytoskeleton
a framework composed of protein tubules and rods that supports the cell and gives it a distinctive form
diploid
a cell containing two sets of chromosomes
dispersive
old and new mosaic DNA
dizygotic twins (fraternal)
two eggs and two sperm
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that participates in DNA replication by inserting new DNA bases and correcting mismatched base pairs
duplication
an extra copy of a gene or DNA sequence, usually caused by misaligned pairing in meiosis; a chromosome containing repeats of part of its genetic material
embryo
a prenatal human between the third and eighth weeks of development
endolasmic reticulum
smooth = fat
rough = sugars
enzyme
protein that speeds the rate of a specific biochemical reation
euploid
a somatic cell with the normal number of chromosomes for that species
fetal cell sorting
a prenatal test that separates fetal cells from a pregnant woman's blood
frameshift
a mutation that alters a gene's reading frame
gap 1 phase
the stage of interphase when proteins, carbs, and lopids are synthesized in preparation for mitosis
gap 2 phase
stage of interphase when additional proteins are synthesized in preparation for impending mitosis
gene
a sequence of DNA that instructs a cell to produce a particular protein
golgi body
an organelle, consisting of flattened membranous sacs where secretion components are packaged
growth factor
a protein that stimulates mitosis
helicase
a type of enzyme that unwinds and holds apart strands or repicating DNA
histone
a type of protein around which DNA entwines
hormone
a biochemical secreted in one part of the body that travel in the bloodstream to another part, where it exerts an effect
initiation site
the site where DNA replication begins on a chromosome
insertion
inserts and extra base in sequence
interphase
the stage of the cell cycle during which a cell is not dividing
karyotype
a chart that displays chromosome pairs in size order
ligase
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds in the sugar phosphate back bone of DNA
lysosome
a saclike organelle containing enzymes that degrade debris
mRNA
a molecule of RNA complementary in sequence to the coding strand of a gene
metacentric
centromere located in center
metaphase
stage of mitosis when chromosomes align along the center of the cell
missense
a single base change mutation that alters an amino acid in the gene product
mitochondrion
an organelle consisting of a double membrane that houses enzymes that catalyze reactions that extract energy from nutrients
mitosis
division of somatic cells
monosomy
missing one chromosome
monozygotic twins (identical)
one egg and one sperm
multifactorial trait
a trait or illness determined by several genes
nondisjunction
the unequal partitioning of chromosomes into gametes during meiosis
nonsense
codes for stop codon
nuclear envelope
the outer boundary of the nucleus
oncogene
a dominant gene that promotes cell division; cancer causing gene
oogenesis
development of organs from a three-layered embryo
oogonium
the diploid cell that begins oogenesis
peroxisome
an organelle consisting of a double membrane that houses enzmes with various functions
plasmid
a small circle of doulbe stranded DNA fund in some bacteria in addition to their DNA
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a technique in which a specific sequence of DNA from a gene of interest is replicated in a test tube to rapidly produce many copies