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54 Cards in this Set

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GENE
a unit of heredity that may influence the outcome of an organism's traits; DNA sequence that codes from RNA
ALLELE
an alternative form of a specific gene
LOCUS
a physical location of a gene within a chromosome
within chromosome
CHROMOSOME
a single, continuous, very large macromolecule of DNA that contains many genes; proteins bound to DNA provide the organized structure of a chromosome
DAUGHTER CHROMOSOME
a chromosome that has separated from a chromatid
result of [sister] chromatids' separation
SISTER CHROMATIDS
pairs of replicated chromosomes that are attached to each other at the centromere; genetically identical
HOMOZYGOUS
describes a diploid individual who has two identical copies of the same allele
HETEROZYGOUS
describes a diploid individual who has different copies of the same allele`
HAPLOID
gametes containing half the genetic material found in somatic cells

for a diploid species, a haploid gamete contains a single set of chromosomes
n
DIPLOID
an organism or cell that contains two copies of each type of chromosome
2n
SEX CHROMOSOME
a pair of chromosomes that determines sex in a species
X and Y
AUTOCHROMOSOME/AUTOSOME
chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
chromosomes that have the same genetic structure and loci
KARYOTYPE
a photographic representation of all the chromosomes within a cell, usually ordered by size; reveals how many chromosomes are in an active (dividing) somatic cell
photograph
INTERPHASE
the series of phases G1, S, and G2 during which a cell spends most its life
MITOSIS
a nuclear division into 2 nuclei, such that each daughter will receive the same complement of chromosomes
ISOGAMOUS
produced a single type of gamete which unite in pairs to form zygote
HETEROGAMOUS
gameted produced are either male or female; fusion of male and female gametes form zygote
MEIOSIS
a form of nuclear dision in which the sorting process reuslts in the production of haploid cells from diploid cells
LEPTONEMA
chromosomes condense
homologous chromosomes pair
prophase I
ZYGONEMA
tight associated between homologous chromosomes, mediated by synaptonemal complex which connects them
prophase I
synaptonemal complex
PACHYNEMA
crossing over occurs, increasing genetic variability; synaptonemal complex disassembled
prophase I
crossing over
DIPLONEMA
chromosomes begin to move apart; chiasmata (formed by crossing over) become visable
prophase I
DIAKINESIS
breakdown of nuclear envelope
assembly of the spindle
prophase I
CROSSING-OVER
the exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes; results in new combos of genetic material, not found in parent DNA
pro. I: pachynema
MEIOSIS II
produces 4 haploid gamete cells
SYNAPSIS
homologous chromosomes recognize each other and then align themselves along their entire length
SYNAPYONEMAL COMPLEX
a complex of proteins that promote the interconnection btw. homologous chromosomes during meiosis
zygonema (pro. I)
CHIASMATA
the site where crossing over occurs btw. two chromosomes
GAMETOGENESIS
the production of gametes (sperm, egg cells); gametes are produced by specialized (germ) cells
GENOTYPE
the genetic makeup of an organism; a description of the genes it contains
PHENOTYPE
characteristics that can be observed in an organism; phenotype is a product of genotype and environment
TRUE-BREEDING
a strain of a particular species that continues to produce the same trait after several generations of self-fert. or inbreeding
homozygous
TEST-CROSS
an experimental cross between a recessive individual an an indiviual of unknown genotype, to find out what the unknown is
MONOHYBRID CROSS
involves true-breeding strains that differ in a single trait; all offspring will exactly resemble one of the parents
uniformity in F1
DIHYBRID CROSS
crosses involving two pairs of traits; factors of different traits assort independently from one another
MENDEL'S FIRST LAW:
SEGREGATION
during gamete formation, each member of allelic pair seperates from the other member to form the genetic constitution of the gamete
MENDEL'S SECOND LAW:
INDEPENDENT ASSORMENT
factors of different traits assort independently from one another
TRIHYBRID CROSS
crosses involving three independently assorting traits
RULE OF MULTIPLICATION
the probability that independent events will occur simultaneously is the product of their individual probabilities
RULE OF ADDITION
the probability of an event that can ovvur in two or more independent ways is the sum of the seperate probabilities of the different ways
CHI-SQUARE TEST
checks for goodness of fit between the expected and observed results to determine whether differences are likely owed to chance alone
NULL HYPOTHESIS
what is observed is the same as what was expected
PEDIGREE ANALYSIS
tracing traits through family trees; genetic analysis used to determine the type of inheritance pattern that a gene follows
PEDIGREE SYMBOLS
generations numbered by roman numerals, individuals numbered by arabic numerals
AUTOSOMAL-RECESSIVE
trait tends to skip generations, members of both sexes equally affectd; unaffected parents can have unaffected child, but two affected parents cannot have an unaffected child
albinism, cystic fibrosis
AUTOSOMAL-DOMINANT
trait usually present in each generation, members of both sexes affected; unaffected or affected parents can have an unaffected child; on ave. half the children of an affected parent will be affected
brachydactyly, dwarfism, marfan syndrome
X-LINKED RECESSIVE
recessive allele located on the x chromosome; trait may skip generations, most affected indivuals are males
color blindness, hemophelia
X-LINKED DOMINANT
dominant allele located on the x chromosome; trait doesn't skop generations
faulty tooth enamel, rickets (vitamin D loss)
Y-linked
genes/alleles located on the Y chromosome; trait only affects males, affected males get from fathers and give to sons
hypertrichosis of the ear
RECIPRICAL CROSS
a pair of crosses in which the traits of the two parents differ with regard to sex (ex: red eyed female fly cross with white eyed male fly- recip. cross would be white eyed female crossed with red eyed male)
HOMOGAMETIC
in species with two types of sex chromosomes, the homogametic sex is the one that produces only one type of gamete (in mammals: female egg is homogametic b/c can only contain one X chrom)
XX
HETEROGAMETIC
in species with two types of sex chromosomes, heterogametic sex is the one that produces two types of genders (in mammals, males sperm b/c can contain either X or Y chrom)
XY
NONDISJUNCTION
event in which chromosomes do not segregate properly during mitosis or meiosis