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60 Cards in this Set

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What is Tetragametic chimera?
Lydia Fairchild- 2 eggs fertilized in woman's mother, two blastules develop into single indiv. 2 Fraternal twins put together
Genetic info can be found in the
nucleus of the cell and other genetic info can also be found in mitochandria
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance- 1902
Walter dulton and theodor boveri, chromosomes are teh carriers of Mendel's unit factors of heredity of genes
Metaphase chromosomes look like ... under microscope
fuzzy, tightly coiled of fibrous matter
Complexity varies for chromosome structure within cell that carries genetic info. prokaryote vs eukaryote
prokaryote- gen 1 chromosome, naked DNA or RNA
eukaryote- ususally more than 1 chromosome, DNA, RNA and many proteins
(prokaryote or eukaryote) chromosome # varies tremendously
eukaryote- humans 46, mosquitos 6, chimp 48, water fly 160
Genome-
complete collection of all of the chromosomes of an organism. the complete complement of all of the genes carried by an individual
chromosomes exist as ???? and constricitions on chromsomes are...
pairs! and centromeres
Designations of centromere positions
metacentric
submatacentric
acrocentric
telocentric- does not exist in humans
The diploid state is
2N- 2 copies of every chromosome/gene (somatic cells)
Haploid is
1N- 1 copy of every chromosome/gene (germ cells)
In diploid cells, homologous pairs are
the same in size, shape, centromere, placement, banding pattern and gene order
In diploid cells, nonhomologous pairs
are morphiologically and genetically distinct
Pairs of homologous chromosomes in unduplicated state have...
(one copy from mom, one from dad)
-gene locus- location of a partic gene on a chrom
pair of alleles- alt forms of a gene at a given locus
three gene pairs- at 3 diff. loci on homo. chrom.
- thing as 3 pairs of alleles
What occurs during mitosis?
genetic material segregates during cell division
Mitosis- what are steps of interphase? (4 steps)
g1- normal diploid differentiated cells
g0 - nondiv. cell-life as skin cells- dies
s- synthesis- all chrom, gen mater. in nucl get replicated
g2- metabolic change in cell prod. products for cell division, cell becomes ready to divide through mitosis
Five steps to mitosis- 1st is interphase, what happens?
genetic material localized in nucleus, cannot disting. indiv chromosomes, chromatin is always seen in interphase, 2n=4, 4 chroms in nucleus, diploid cell= 2 pairs, S phase= replication, G2- metabolically prod necessary products
Prophase of Mitosis- 2nd step, what happens?
chromosomes in chromatin condense- able to recognize indiv chromosomes, nuclear envelope begins to disintegrate, centrosome cont. centrioles- duplication, migrate to opp. end of cells
Metaphase- 3rd step in mitosis
Nuc. envelope gone, chromosomes f/chromatin fully condensed, align along cent axis, spindle apparatus- chromosomes phys attat. by centromeres for each of 4 chromosomes, x like struct in chroms.
X like struct from metaphase of mitosis is
one chromosome as X, with 2 genetically indentical sister chromatids
From metaphase to Anaphase in mitosis there is...
replication of 4 centromeres- during transition
Anaphase- 4th step in mitosis
exact same info moving to opp. poles- when complete, all info at each spindle app. pole
Telophase- 5th step in mitosis
chromosomes back to chromatin state, all contents in cell div. by cytokinesis to form. Two sep cells, cytoplasm and organelle split is cytokinesis (2 new daughter cells are genetically identical to orig cells)
2N cells go to gametes (haploid) during
MEIOSIS
Meiosis one is the
process by which all multicellular orgs create 1. haploid cells from orig diploid cells and 2. maximize genetic variability in next gen's population, incr. probability that some will survive
During G1 interphase of meiosis, can you distinguish between indiv chroms?
NO, but this is the desicion to duplicate material
Between meiosis one and meiosis two, you end up with # of haploid gametes
four
At the end of prophase one in meiosis, you will see that...
the spindle apparatus has developed, there is no nuclear envelope and the chromosomes are visible
There are 5 steps to Meiotic proph one (meiosis) They are named....
leptonema, zygonema, pachynema, diplonema, diakenesis
leptonema of meiotic proh one is
(first stage) the centrioles disappear, last bits of nuclear envelope are vis, barely rec. indiv. chroms
Zygonema is in meiotic proph 1
2nd step- nuclear env. cont. to dissolve, further migration of spindle app, further cond. of chroms, tubules come out of spindle app, chroms pair up
pachynema of meiotic proph 1 is
3rd step- thickened thread, spincle app. cont. building, now look like paired, replicated homologous chroms, tetrads.
tetrads are
two sets of X looking chroms, first X is two sister chromatids, second X is two sister chromatids, the two X's do not have sister chromatids, they are similar but not necessarily identical with genetic info
Diplonema of meiotic proph 1 is
4th step- chiasma, four chromatids intertwined, points of crossing over (indiv chiasma), collectively chiasmata, 1st vis in this stage
Diakinesis of meiotic proph 1 is
5th step- end of prophase, nuc envelope gone, spindle app built, tetrads along cent spindle app. - metaphase plate
Metaphase One (meiosis)
tetrads assembled, spindl. app done
Anaphase One (meiosis)
no centromere replication, half of each tetrad, one homol. of each tetrad goes to opp. poles, reduced diploid to haploid state- halfing amnt of gen. material (no homologous pairs)
Prophase II of Meiosis II
is first step in meiosis II
Metaphase II of meiosis II is
2nd step, alignment on meta. plate, cent spindle finbers, centromere replication here!!!
Anaphase II of Meiosis II
chroms to opp poles
Telophase of Meiosis II
spindle breaks down, nuclear envelopes form, cytokinesis, results in 4 haploid cells and maximized variability
Genetic recombination occurs in
Prophase One of meiosis
Mitosis vs. meiosis (mitosis card)
1. homol do not pair at m1
2. one division
3. chromosomes unchanged in M1
4. centromere duplicates in M1
5. no crossover
6. conservative
7. diploid or haploid cells
Mitosis vs. meiosis (meiosis card)
1. homols do pair at M1
2. 2 divisions
3. chrom # is halved
4. centromere dupl in M2
5. crossover occurs
6. variation increased
7. diploid cells
Mendel's work was from the year
mid 1800's, into society around 1865 but no one understood
in 1900, what happened with mendel's work
it was repeated independently by others and understood
Mendel's work explains the nature of...
inherietence variation in plants/animals
Charles Darwin from 1850, in 1859 he was ...
published- driving force evolution of nat. selction in new orgs (selective pressures)
Gregor Mendel used .... in his experiments
pea plants, had pure breeding strains
Mendel's inheritence ideas (3)
1. unit factors of hereidtion (genes) are responsible for trait determination (exist in pairs) 2. Diff. unit factors of heredity for single trait (alleles), when present in teh same indiv., exhibit a relationship of dominance and recessiveness 3. paried unit factors of heredity segregate away f/each other during gamete formation
A gene is
a physical and functional unit of heredity
the locus is
a site or place on a chromosome where a particular gene resides
an allele is
an alternate form of a gene that can exist at a sing. locus
Homozygous in diploid cell
2 same, both dom or both rec.
Heterozygous in diploid cell
2 diff, dom, Xx
Mendel's dyhybrid cross gives following ratios
9:3:3:1
Law of independent assortment
during gamete formation, segregating paris of unit factors of heredity for 2 diff traits assort independently of each other
Product Law
The probability of two independent events occuring simultaneously is the prod of the indiv. probabilities
How many diff gametic types can result from independent assortment
Four diff types
The Branch Diagram is also called the ... and is used to predit the ... population
fourth line method, predicts F2 pop