Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mobile DNA
alternative term for transposable elements
plasmids
nonessential DNA molecules that exist inside baterial cells
conjugation
a process of DNA transfer in sexual reproduction in certain bateria; in e. coli, the transfer is unidirectional, from donor cell lto recipient cell. Also, a mating between cells of Paramecium
conjugative plasmids
a plasmid encoding proteins and other factors that make possible its transmission between cells
F factor
a baterial plasmid-often called the fertility factor or sex plasmid-that is capable of transferring itself from a host (f+) cell to a cell not carrying an F factor (F- cell); when an F factor is integrated into the baterial chromosome (in an Hfr cell), the chromosome becomes transferrable to an F- cell during conjugation
transposon
a transposable element that contains bacterial genes-i.e. for antibiotic resistance; also used loosely as a synonym for transposable element
cointegrate
a DNA molecule, usually circular and formed by recombination, that joins two replicons
site-specific recombinase
an enzyme that catalyzes intermolecule cecombination between two duplex DNA molecules at the site of a target sequence that they have in common
integron
a DNA element that encodes a site-specific recombinase as well as recognition region that allows other sequences with similar recognitionregions to be incorporated into the integron by recombination
cassette
a circular antibiotic-resistance-coding region flanked by a recognition region for an integron
integrase
an enzyme that catalyzes a site specific exchange between two DNA sequences
R Plasmid
A bacterial plasmid that carries drug resistance genes; commonly used in genetic engineering
Antibiotic-resistant mutants
mutants that are able to grow in presence of an antibiotic
nutritional mutants
A mutation in a metabolic pathway that creates a need for a substance to be present in the growth medium or that eliminates the ability to utilize a substance present in the growth medium
prototroph
microbial strain capable of growth in a defined minimal medium that ideally contains only a carbon source and inorganic compounds. The wildtype genotype is usually regarded as a prototroph
Auxotroph
a mutant microorganism that is unable to synthesize a compound required for its growth but is able to grow if the compound is provided
Carbon-source mutants
mutants that cannot utilize particular substances as sources of energy or carbon atoms
nonselective medium
a medium which all wildtype cells form colonies
selective medium
a medium that only allows growth of one type of cell (either wildtype or mutant)
transformation
the process of genetic alteration by pure DNA
cotransformation
simultaneous transformation of two genetic markers carried on a single DNA fragment in bacteria
Hfr Cell
an e coli cell in which an f plasmid is integrated into the chromosome, making possible the transfer of part or all of the chromosome to an F- cell.
episome
a genetic element that can exist free in the cell or as a segment of DNA integrated into the chromosome
selected marker
a genetic mutation that allows growth in selective medium
counterselected marker
a mutation used to prevent growth of a donor cell in an Hfr x F- bacterial mating
interrupted-mating technique
in an Hfr x F- cross, a technique by which donor and recipient cells are broken apart at specific times, allowing only a particular length of DNA to be transferred
time of entry
in an Hfr x F- bacterial mating, the earliest time that a particular gene in the Hfr parent is transferred to the F- recipient
F' plasmid
An F plasmid that contains genes obtained from the bacterial chromosome in a addition to plasmid genes; formed by aberrant excision of an integrated F factor, taking along adjacent bacterial DNA
partial diploid
a cell in which a segment of the genome is duplicated, usually in a plasmid
transduction
the carrying of genetic information from one bacterium to another by a phage
transducting phage
a phage type capable of prducing prticles that contain bacterial DNA (transducing particles)
generalized transducting phage
produces particles that may carry any region of the genome
specialized transducing phage
produces particles that carry only specific regions of chromosomal DNA;
cotransduction
transduction of two or more linked genetic markers by one transducing particle
frequency of cotransduction
the proportion of transductants carrying a selected genetic marker that also carry a nonselected genetic marker
lytic cycle
the life cycle of a phage, in which progeny phage are produced and the host bacterial cell is lysed.
plaque
a clear area in an otherwise turbid layer of bacteria growing on a solid medium, caused by the infectino and killing of the cells by a phage; because each plaque results from the growth of one phage, plaque counting is a way of counting viable phage particles. The term is also used for animal viruses that cause clear areas in layers of animal cells grown in culture
hotspot
a site on a DNA molecule for which the rate of mutation is much higher than the rate of mutation on the rest of the molecule.
lysogenic cycle
In temperate bacteriophage, the phenomenon in which the DNA of an infecting phage becomes part of the genetic material of the cell
prophage induction
activation of a prophage to undergo the lytic cycle
excisionase
an enzyme that is needed for prophage excision; works together with an integrase
phage repressor
regulatory protein that prevent stranscription of genes in a prophage
Insertion sequence
DNA sequence capable of transposition in a prokaryotic genome; such aequences usually code for their own transposase
Cistron
DNA sequence specifying a single genetic function as defined by a complementation test; nucleotide sequence coding for a single polypeptide.
Lysogen
Clone of bacterial cells that have acquired a prophage