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53 Cards in this Set

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lethal alleles
can cause death
whats one way to keep lethal alles in the laboratory
have them be temperature sensitive (ts) mutants
ts mutants
temperature sensitive mutants
a ts mutant is ______________ at permissive temperature
wild type
a ts mutant is _______________ at the restrictive temperature
mutant
for coat color genes in mice. Why does the yellow coat show an inheritance pattern of 2:1 when 2 yellow mice are crossbred.
you should get a ration of 1:2:1 but the any homozygous yellows die. and so the living mice are in the 2:1 ratio.
For the yellow mice experiment when crossbreeding 2 yellow mice where would you see the proper 2:1 ratio
if you looked at the zygotes
sublethal alleles
they reduce the viability of the organism but dont kill all of them.
whats the effect of sublethal alles on progeny ratio
skew them.. instead of getting 50% and 50% you might get 60% and 40%.
pleiotropic effects
single mutation in a gene having multiple effects
whats the steps in for identyf genes that contr to a part biol property?
1. treat with mutagens
2. test mutants to see how many gene loci are involved
3. combine mutat pairwise to form double mutants
whats the steps in for identyf genes that contr to a part biol property? (summarize)
1. hunt
2. tests for allelism
3. tests for gene interaction
complementation
production of wild type phenotype when 2 haploid genomes bearing diff recessive mutations are united in the same cell.
if recessive mutations are alleles of the ____________________ they will not produce wild type progeny
same gene
for harebell plants (wild type blue)
what does w1/w1 X w2+/w2+ mean?
the F1 indiv will have 2 defect alleles for w1 but enzyme 2 will be func.
complementation is a ____________________ of the wild type alles of 2 or more genes
cooperative interaction
in a ____________________ the complementation test cant be performed by intercrossing
haploid organism.
heterokaryon
fusion of 2 diff nuclei in one cell

ex: fungi
why do you make a heterokaryon for a fungus
to test for complementarity because its a haploid organism.
f2 generation from the F1 dyhybrid F1 harebell plants has blue and white plants in a ration of 9:7. Why
9:7 is really a variation of 9:3:3:1 but 3,3, and 1 have been combined
Corn snakes
a snake that has o/o; b+/- will be?
black because it lacks orange pigment
corn snakes
F2 generation from F1 o+/o; b+/b has a ratio of 9:3:3:1. what does this prove?
that the interacting genes are independent.
epistasis
ability of a mutation at one locus to override a mutation at another in a double mutant.
epistatic
the overiding mutation
hypostatic
the overidden mutation
the epistatic mutation is of a gene that is ________________________ than that of the hypostatic
farther upstream
a phenotypic ratio of _____________________ is a mark of epistasis
9:3:4
epistais is inferred when a mutant allesle of one gene ____________________ of alleles of another gene ___________________ its own phenotype
masks, expresses
the double mutant w/w; m/m produces white flowers, showing that ____________ is epistatic to ______________.
white is epistatic to magenta
suppressor mutation
mutant allele of one gene that reverses the effect of a mutation of another gene.
What is the result of a suppressor mutation
wild type phenotype
coat color inheritance in labrador retreivers e/e prevents
color deposition in hair
revertant
reversals of the original mutational event
revertant a+ x standard wild type a+
what would the progeny be
all a+
yeast are
a. haploid
b. diploid
a. haploid
what are the signs of suppressor versus epistasis
1. modified phenotypic ratio
2. only 2 phenotypes ( not 3 )
if you see 3 phenotypes when dealing with supressors and espistatis what is it probably?
epistasis
one moleculary mechanism for supression is?
that the first mutation changes the "Key" and the suppresor changes the "lock" so that it now fits the changed key.
a suppressor mutation might undo a problem with ?
protein- protein binding
in protein protein binding a suppressor mutation might cause a _____________________ in the second protein
compensatory shape change
if a mutation causes a block in a metabolic pathway, the suppressor might?
find a way of bypassing the blocked pathway
some regulatory mutations of _______________________ of the target gene
change the level
a mutation in a regulatory protein can?
downregulate or upregulate the transcribed protein
What phenotypes indicates a modifier?
appearance of 2 grades of mutant phenotypes within the "a" progeny.
synthetic lethals
is when 2 viable single mutants are intercrossed to become lethal.
True or false
A cell has many duplicate or backup systems and pathways
true
a synthetic lethal can occur when you have mutations in?
a system and in its "back up" system.
penetrance
percentage of individuals with a given allele who exhibit the phenotype associated with that allele.
if you have a certain genotype, why might you not express it?
1. infl of environm
2. infl of other genes
3. mutant effects might be too small to see or measure
expressivity
degree of which a given allele is expressed at the phenotypic level.
expressivity measures the _____________________ of the phenotype
intensity
Give an example of expressivitiy
"brown" animals from different stocks might show very different intensities of brown pigment from light to dark
formula for chi square test is?
Sum[O-E]^2/E for all classes