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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chromos mutat
2 gr?
ch in chrom numb
ch in chrom struct
2 types of ch in chrom numb
1. aberrant euploidy
2. aneuploidy
aberrant euploidy is ?
ch in whole chrom sets
aneuploidy is?
ch in parts of chromosome sets
org that have more or fewer than the normal number of sets are?
aberrant euploids
polyploids are ?
org with more than 2 chromosome sets
3n is?
5n is?
ploidy level?
is the number of sets of chrom
monoploid is?
an org that has only one chrom set
male bees, wasps are ?
male bees, wasps develop by?
genetic load?
is the large number of deleterious recessive mutations
why dont most monoploid in most species develop?
bec of genetic load
polyploidy is common in _______ but not in _________
not in animals
in aberrant euploids there is a correlat betw ___________ and size of the organ
number of copies of the chromosome set
a tetraploid org will look like its diploid counterpart but?
will be bigger
higer the ploidy level, the?
larger the organ
polyploids you can have
autopolyploids and ?
allopolyploids are?
have sets of chrom from 2 diff but closely related spec
autopolyploids have multiple chromosome sets coming from?
one species
the diff chrom sets are ____________, not homologous
homeologous is?
partially homologous
triploids are usually?
how can a geneticist make a triploid?
cross a 2N with a 4n.
the 1n gamete will unite will the 2N gamete
triploids are usually sterile because?
a gamete could receive either 2 or 1 chromosomes for each chromosome type
triploids are aneuploid bec?
they dont have 3 copies of every chromosome.
polyploids with odd numbers of chrom numbers, like triploids, are?
sterile or highly infertile
autotetraploids come from the?
doubling of 2N to 4N
autotetraploids can be made artificially by?
using chem that disrupt microtubule polymerization
colchicine is a?
common antitubulin agent
a cell treated with colchicine will?
have the s phase but chromosome segreg or cell division wont
treating a 2n cell with colchicine will yield?
a 4N cell
what are the 3 diff meiotic possib in tetraploids?
1. 2 bivalents
2. one quadrivalent
3. one univalent and a trivalent
if chrom pair as bival or quadrivalents then you can have?
chomosomes that segregate normally.
if trivalents form what will happen?
segreg will lead to nonfunct aneuploid gametes
A/A/a/a X A/A/a/a
what will be odds of an a/a gamete?
2/3 X 1/4= or 1/6
A/A/a/a X A/A/a/a
probab of a/a/a/a zygote is?
1/6 X 1/6= 1/36
A/A/a/a X A/A/a/a
probab of A/-/-/- is ?
or 35/36
many species that act like normal diploids or haploids are descendants of?
autopolypolids that occured in the past
allopolyploids are?
plant that is a hybrid of 2 or more species
karpechenko made an allopolyploidy by?
crossing cabbage with the radish.
amphidiploid are ?
doubled diploid.
his sterile hybrid plant spontaneously?
it became a amphidiploid. thus each chromosome had a pairing partner for meiosis
his radish and cabbage
F1 hybrid had n + n =?
9 + 9
his radish and cabbage
F1 hybrid spontaneously became?
a fertile amphidiploid
______________ has been a maj force in evol of new plant species
give an example of allopolyploidy giving rise to new species?
3 species of Brassica combining with each other to form new species of plants
you can make artificial allopolyploid plants by?
fusing diploid cells from diff spec
agricult applicat
why are monoploids good to have?
1bec recess mutations will be phenotypically expressed and not covered up by diploidy
2. good allele combinations wont be broken up by recombinat
agricult applicat
having monopliods can prev good allele combinat from being broken up by?
how do you artif get a monoploid?
a pollen grain cell can be cold treated. it will bec a embyroid
embryoid is made by?
cold treating a pollen cell
monoploid cells can be exposed to mutagen and then selected for resistance to things like?
plant parasites or herbicides
give an ex of them?
seedless watermelon
t or f
polyploidy in animals is rare
give 3 ex of polyploidy animals?
worms, frogs, salemanders
aneuploidy is?
when a org differs by part of the chrom set
trisomic means
2n-1 is?
2n-2 is?
in haploids
n+1 is?
disomic in ________ is n+1
what is the maj cause of most aneuploidy?
mitotic nondisjunction during development results in?
aneuploid sections of the body
meiotic disj
can occur at ____________ meiotic division
first or second
n-1 gamete and a n gamete will make?
a monosomic zygote
n+1 gamete fertiliz by n gamete yields a?
2n +1
nondisj is more likely in meiosis ________?
not II
why is nondisjunct more likely in Meiosis I?
cause proph and met I require prop pairing of homolog chrom of the tetrad
___________ are a necess component of the normal disjunct process
format of a _______ helps hold the tetrad together
in drosophil, most of the nondisjunct chrom are ?
___________ are needed to maintain the intact tetrad until anaphase I
monosomics are?
Turner syndrome is?
44 autosomes and
single X
Turner syndrome
what are its effects?
sterile f
geneticists use viable plant monosomics to match recess mutant alles to ?
a spec chromosome
_________ have an extra copy of one chromosome
2n +1 is?
klinfelters syndrome is?
lanky males, with mild retard
down syndrome is?
trisomy of chrom 21
who runs a higher risk of having children with Down syndrome?
older mothers
in females, eggs are arrested at?
in late prophase I
in females, eggs are arrested in late prophase I and ________ must stay assoc for a long time
the chromosomal tetrad
t or f
in female animals most nondisj happens at anaphase II
anaphase I
patau syndrome is?
trisomy 13
trisomy 13 is?
patau syndrome
edwards syndrome is?
trisomy 18
Patua and edward sydrome?
what is their life expectancy?
very short. less than a year
plant aneuploidy
will look ?
disproportionate in some way
plant aneuploidy -disproport
plant polyploidy- ?
proportionate but bigger
in plant aneuploidy.
who is going to be more abnormal, the monosomic or the trisomic?
the monosomic
humans. who is more abnormal?
autosomal monosomics or trisomics?
monosomics- they wont even survive
ratio of A and B genes is 2A:3B.
this shows that the genes are?
out of balance
gene dosage effect is?
that the more copies of a g you have the more g prod you have
sometimes the imbal of aneuploidy result from?
a few "major genes" on a chromosome
the x chromosome has sex g and?
housekeeping genes
females XX
males XY
but to correct for the double amount of g in the females you have?
dosage compensation
in mammals,
one X is always?
the X chromosome is?