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34 Cards in this Set

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The study of biological inherited traits
Genetics
The study of the chemical nature of genes and of how genes funtion to affect the traits of all living organisms
molecular genetics
The macro-molecule, usually composed of two poly-nucleotide chains in a double helix, that is the carrier of the genetic information in all cells and many viruses
Deoxyribonuceic acid (DNA)
Thread like objects inside the nucleus that become visible in the light microscope when stained with certain dyes
chromosomes
Visible clump of cells
colony
Change in the phenotype of a cell or organism resulting from exposure of the cell or organism to DNA isolated from a differnt genotype.
Transformation
A virus that attacks bacterial cells
bacteriophage or phage
The subunits of each strand of DNA
nucleotides
the four chemical constituents that every nucleotide contains
bases
What are the four bases?
Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
The complementary pairing of bases
Watson-Crick base pairing
individual strand of a DNA molecule
single stranded DNA
Double helix of a DNA molecule
Double stranded DNA or Duplex DNA
Directionality, like a chain of circus elephants linked trunk to tail
Polarity
Oppositely oriented strands of DNA
antiparallel
The copying process in which a single stranded DNA molecule becomes two identical molecules
Replication
Each individual strand serves as a pattern
Template
Proteins control the chemical and physical processes of cells
Metabolism
intorduced in 1878 to refer to the biological catalysts that accelerate biochemicl reactions
Enzymes
Any hereditory disease in which cellular metabolism is abnormal results from an inherited defect in an enzyme
Inborn errors of metabolism
An inborn errors of metabolism in which the abnormal substance excreted is homogentisic acid.
Alkaptonuria
One of the building blocks from which proteins are made
amino acids
Any such sequence of biochemical reactions
Chemical pathway or metabolic pathway
Each arrow in the pathway represents a single step depicting the transition from the input
Substrate molecule
The tail of the arrow of the pathway to the output
Product molecule
When an enzyme in a pathway is defective, the pathway is said to have a "blank" at this step
Block
Small molecules
Metabolites
A condition resulting from the absense of (or a defect in) the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
The result of protein synthesis which consists of a liner sequence of amino acids connected end to end
Polypeptide chain
The indirect route of information transfer
Central dogma
Contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose, is usually single stranded, and contains the base uracil instead of thymine, which is present in DNA
Ribonucleaic acid, RNA
Carries the genetic information from DNA and is used as a template for polypeptide syntesis.
Messenger RNA, mRNA
Major constituents of the cellular particles called ribomes on which polpeptide synthesis takes place
ribosomal RNA, rRNA
Carries a particular amino acid as well as a three-base recognition region that base-pairs with a group of three adjacent bases in the mRNA
Transfer RNA, tRNA