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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a heterozygote?
When two copies of a gene having two different alleles.
What is penetrance?
When genotype is expressed in phenotype.
What is an allele?
One form of a gene.
What is segregation?
Separation into different gametes.
What is independant assortment?
Segregation at random into gametes.
Define dominant.
Allele express in the heterozygote.
What is codominant?
Both alleles are expressed in the heterozygote.
What is epistasis?
Epistatis occurs when alleles at one locus affect the phenotype produced by alleles at another locus.
What is F1?
The first filial generation of a cross.
What is F2?
The offspring of an F1 x F2 cross.
What are gametes?
Gametes are the sperm and eggs, or pollen and ovules of an organism.
What are germ cells?
Germ cells are the sperm and eggs, or pollen and ovules of an organism.
What is a gene?
A gene is an entity which controls a particular trait in an organism.
What is Phenotype?
Phenotype denotes the traits exhibited by an individual.
What is genotype?
Genotype indicates the alleles an individual has.
What is Somatic tissue?
That part of the organism other than the germ cells.
What does P stand for?
The parental generation.
If the two copies of a gene are the same allele, the individual is called?
A Homozygous individual will produce how many types of gametes?
One type.
When two copies of a gene are different alleles, the individual is called?
A heterozygous individual produces how many types of gametes?
2 to the n where n is the number of genes with two copies of an allele.
What are Mendel's two Laws?
The Law of Segregation.
The Law of Independant Assortment.
What is the Law of Segregation?
The two alleles of a given gene present in the somatic tisse are segregated from each other into separate gametes.
What is Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment?
Segregation at random into gametes.
What is a dihybrid cross?
A cross where two traits segregate into germ cells.
What does "wild-type" mean.
Describes individuals with the "normal" or most common phenotype.
What is Variable Expressivity?
Different individuals with the same genotype do not have exactly the same phenotype. e.g polydactyl
What is reduced penetrance?
Ocurs when expressivity can vary to the extent that individuals who have inherited a given genetic trait sometimes cannot be distinguished from normal.
What is Pedigree?
Pedigree is a nomenclature for tracking genetic information for orgnisms with a small number of offspring.

Circle - Female
Square - Male

Two Forms
1. Mates - connected by a horizontal line
2. Lines join parents to offspring. Each line represents transmission of a gamete.
What is recessive?
Allele not expressed in a heterozygote.