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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what types of cells cause cancer
mutations in somatic cells
what type of disease is cancer
clonal disease
what are the 2 properties of cancer cells
uncontrolled/unregulated proliferation
metastatic spread
what are the 2 types of tumors
benign - not cancerous, slow growing
malignant - undergo metastasis, interfere with neighboring cells
what are the 5 stages of metastatic spread
1. Invasion, migration: cells detach from primary tissue and invade adjacent tissue
2. Intravasation: cancer cells infiltrate blood, lymphatic vessels
3. Circulation: cells travel via blood
4. Extravasation: leave blood stream by penetrating endothelium
5. Colonization, Proliferation, Angiogenesis
what are the 3 classification types of cancer
carcinoma: epithelial cells
sarcoma: mesenchymal cells
leukemia: blood, bone marrow cells
3 types of cancer treatments (describe each)
-what is currently being developed
-chemotherapy (disrupts cell division)
-radiation (small, non-metastatic tumor)
both chemo and radiation therapy target and harm healthy cells

-more precise methods
what are the 6 Hallmarks of cancer
-sustaining proliferative signalling
-evading growth suppressors
-activating invasion/metastasis
-replicative immortality
-inducing angiogenesis
-resisting apoptosis (cell death)
what are proto-oncogenes
-how do they become oncogenes
normal cells that regulate cell growth, differentiation
-mutation (translocation or protein structure) or overexpression
how is the myc gene an example of sustaining proliferative signalling
translocation of the proto-oncogene myc places close to an antibody, it becomes actively and overly expressed, becoming an oncogene
what type of gene is the Ras gene
-how does it become cancerous
regulates cell membrane and cell growth/division; it is a proto-oncogene
-mutation freezes Ras in its active state, continuously stimulating cell division, making it an oncogene
what are 2 ways tumor suppressor genes suppress cancer
-repressive effect on cell cycle
-promote apoptosis
what are the 2 tumor suppressor genes and how do they suppress tumors
-pRB: prevents progression from G1/S phase (regulates E2F)
-p53: activates DNA repair and induces cell cycle arrest, initiates apoptosis; present at low levels in the cell; bound to MDM2 in inactive form
what does a mutation in Ras and p53 cause
together, they transform normal cells to cancerous cells
what are the 2 limitations cancerous cells must overcome to achieve replicative immortality
-senescence: non-proliferative, viable state
-crisis: cell death when cell does not enter senescence
what is angiogenesis
-how does cancer utilize it
growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels
-tumors secrete growth factors that increase capillary growth into tumors that provide nutrients to the tumor
what initiates apoptosis
what is importance of Cyclin-CDK
-determine cell's progress through the cell cycle
-CDK constitutively expressed
-Cyclin synthesized as specific stages in the cell cycle