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56 Cards in this Set

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DEFINE GENETIC RECOMBINATION
THE CREATION OF A NOVEL GENOME BY COMBINING DNA FROM DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS
HOW DOES GENETIC RECOMBINATION OCCUR IN EUCARYOTES
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
EUCARYOTIC CELLS ARE DIPLOID...DEFINE DIPLOID
TWO COPIES OF EVERY GENE IN THE GENOME
HOW DOES GENETIC RECOMBINATION OCCUR IN PROCARYOTES
NO SEXUAL REPRODUCTION...INSTEAD THEY HAVE ONE WAY TRANSFER OF DNA FROM DONOR CELL TO RECPIENT CELL
WHAT ARE THE (3) MECHANISMS OF ONE WAY TRANSFER
---CONJUGATION
---TRANSFORMATION
---TRANSDUCTION
DEFINE CONJUGATION
ONE WAY TRANSFER OF DNA BETWEEN TWO INDIVIDUALS IN TEMPORARY PHYSICAL CONTACT VIA THE SEX PILUS
WHAT WAS THE FIRST EVIDENCE OF CONJUGATION
1946= LEDBERGS AND TATUM EXPERIMENT
WHAT DID LEDBERGS AND TATUMS EXPERIMENT DO
MIXED TWO DIFFERENT AUXOTROPHS IN THE SAME CULTURE
WHAT DID LEDENBURGS AND TATUMS EXPERIMENT PRODUCE
PROTOTROPHS
DEFINE TRANSFORMATION
UPTAKE OF NAKED DNA BY A COMPETENT CELL ( FREE FLOATING DNA IN THE SYSTEM)
DEFINE NAKED DNA
DNA RELEASED INTO THE ENVIRONMENT FROM DEAD CELLS.
IN TRANSFORMATION,,,,HOW IS DNA TAKEN IN
THROUGH A MODIFIED PILUS USED SIMILARLY TO A VACUM
IN TRANSFORMATION...WHAT PAHSE DO CELLS USUALLY BECOME COMPETENT ( ABLE TO RECEIVE DNA)
DURING THE EXPONENTIAL PHASE 1/1000 CELLS
1ST EVIDENCE OF TRANSFORMATION
1928 GRIFFITH
WHAT WAS GRIFFITHS EXPERIMENT
GRIFFITH INJECTED MICE WITH 3 DIFFERENT FORMS OF STREPTOCOCCOS PNEUMONIA
WHAT WERE THE RESULTS OF GRIFFITHS EXPERIMENT
WITH A CAPSULE----MICE DIED
W/OUT A CAPSULE---MICE LIVED
W/CAPSULE,HEAT KILLED MOUSE LIVED
MIXTURE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA W/OUT A CAPSULE PLUS HEAT KILLED W/CAPSULE----MOUSE DIES
DEFINE TRANSDUCTION
ONE WAY TRANSFER OF DNA FROM DONOR TO RECIPIENT VIA A VIRUS CALLED A BACTERIOPHAGE
DEFINE STERILIZATION
A PROCESS THAT REMOVES AND DESTROYS ALL LIVING CELLS ( BACTERIA, FUNGI, ALGAE, AND PROTOZOANS), ENDOSPORES AND VIRUSES
WHAT IS THE GREATEST LEVEL OF CLEAN
STERILIZATION
DEFINE DISINFECTION
A PROCESS THAT REMOVES OR DESTROYS ALL PATHOGENIC ( DISEASE CAUSING) MICROBES
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH DISINFECTION
YOU STILL HAVE NON-PATHOGENS, ENDOSPORES
DEFINE SANITIZATION
A PROCESS THAT REDUCES MICROBIAL NUMBERS TO A LEVEL CONSIDERED "SAFE" BY PUBLIC HEALTH STANDARDS ( RESTAURANT RATINGS)
DEFINE ANTISEPSIS
A PROCESS THAT REMOVES OR DESTROYS ALL PATHOGENIC MICROBES, DESIGNED TO BE USED ON LIVING TISSUES ( MUST NOT CAUSE DAMAGE TO LIVING TISSUES-NOT AS STRONG AS DISINFECTANTS)
WHEN DISCUSSING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS,,,DEFINE NARROW SPECTRUM
THE AGENT TARGETS ONE GROUP OF MICROBES
GIVE (1) EXAMPLE OF NARROW SPECTRUM
BACTERIOCIDE
WHEN DISCUSSING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS,,,DEFINE BROAD SPECTRUM
THE AGENT TARGETS MULTIPLE GROUPS OF MICROBES
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF BROAD SPECTRUM
GERMICIDE IS AN EXAMPLE OF BROAD SPECTRUM
WHEN DISCUSSING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS,,,DEFINE THE (2) CLASSIFICATIONS OF "STRENGTH OF ACTION"
CIDAL
STATIC
DEFINE CIDAL
THE AGENT WILL KILL TARGET MICROBES
DEFINE STATIC
THE AGENT WILL INHIBIT GROWTH OF THE TARGET MICROBES
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF STATIC
FUNGICIDE VS GERMISTATIC
LIST THE (7) FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE EFFICIENCY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
---DURATION OF EXPOSURE
---PRESENCE OF ORGANIC DEBRIS
---ROUGHNESS OF SURFACE TO BE CLEANED
---CONCENTRATION OF AGENT
---TEMPERATURE
---POPULATION SIZE
POPULATION COMPOSITION
DEFINE DURATION OF EXPOSURE
IN GENERAL, AN INCREASE IN EXPOSURE TIME = AN INCREASE IN EFFICIENCY
GIVE (4) EXAMPLES OF ORGANIC DEBRIS
BLOOD, FECES, FOOD, TISSUE
DEFINE ORGANIC DEBRIS ( AS FAR AS EFFICIENCY)
IN GENERAL, MORE DEBRIS = LESS EFFICIENCY
WHEN DISCUSSING ORGANIC DEBRIS,,,WHAT DOES THE DEBRIS ACT AS
THE DEBRIS ACTS AS A SHIELD TO PROTECT THE MICROBES FROM THE AGENT
DEFINE ROUGHNESS OF SURFACE (AS FAR AS EFFICIENCY)
IN GENERAL, A ROUGHER SURFACE = LESS EFFICIENCY
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH A "ROUGH SURFACE"
MICROBES MAY HIDE IN THE CRACKS OF A ROUGH SURFACE,,,THE AGENT MAY NOT BE ABLE TO REACH THEM
WHAT IS BETTER FOR ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS...HIGH SURFACE TENSON OR LOW SURFACE TENSION
LOW SURFACE TENSION IS BETTER FOR ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
DEFINE CONCENTRATION OF AGENT (AS FAR AS EFFICIENCY)
IN GENERAL, HIGH [ ] OF AGENT = HIGH EFFICIENCY,,,BUT SATURABLE
DEFINE TEMPERATURE ( EFFICIENCY)
IN GENERAL, HIGH TEMPERATURE = HIGH EFFICIENCY
HOW DOES HEAT AFFECT THE EFFICIENCY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
HEAT SPEEDS UP CHEMICAL RXN'S AND SPEEDS THE SPREAD OF THE AGENT ( INTERACTIONS WITH MICROBES)
THE # OF MICROBES YOU'RE TRYING TO KILL WITH AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT IS REFERRED TO AS
POPULATION SIZE
DEFINE POPULATION SIZE (AS FAR AS EFFICIENCY)
THE HIGHER THE # OF MICROBES= LOWER EFFICIENCY
DEFINE POPULATION COMPOSITION ( AS FAR AS EFFICIENCY)
IN GENERAL, THE MORE MIXED THE POPULATION=THE LOWER THE EFFICIENCY
DEFINE "MIXED"
MULTIPLE MICROBIAL GROUPS---SOME SPECIES ARE MORE RESISTANT TO THE AGENT--IE ENDOSPORES ARE MORE RESISTANT
WHEN DISCUSSING POPULATION COMPOSITION...WHICH ARE MORE RESISTANT,,,MATURE CELLS OR YOUNG CELLS
MATURE CELLS ARE MORE RESISTANT TO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
WHAT CAN BE CONSIDERED DEAD
MICROBES DO NOT GROW WHEN PLACED IN CONDITIONS THAT USUALLY PROMOTE GROWTH
HOW CAN YOU TEST FOR "DEAD"
USE THE ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT
SWAB
TRANSFER TO NUTRIENT AGAR
INCUBATE 24-48 HRS
CK FOR GROWTH
NO GROWTH = DEAD
WHAT IS THE MOST POPULAR PHYSICAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT
HEAT IS THE MOST POPULAR PHYSICAL AGENT
DEFINE "BOILING IN WATER" AS A PHYSICAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT
BOILING IN WATER FOR 10 MINUTES KILLS MOST PATHOGENS, BUT NOT ALL MICROBES OR ENDOSPORES
DEFINE "AUTOCLAVE" AS A PHYSICAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT
USES A COMBINATION OF HEAT AND PRESSURE TO STERILIZE
WHAT TEMP AND PRESSURE DOES AN AUTOCLAVE FUNCTION
121 DEGREES C, 15 psi
WHAT IS AUTOCLAVE TAPE
IF CORRECT TEMP IS MET,,,LINES APPEAR BLACK ON TAPE,,THIS INDICATES THAT IT'S STERILE
IF YOU DIDN'T HAVE AUTOCLAVE TAPE, WHAT IS AN ALTERNATIVE
YOU COULD INCUBATE, AND CHECK FOR GROWTH
DEFINE "FUNCTIONAL STEAM STERILIZATION" AS A PHYSICAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT
A THREE DAY PROCEDURE.....
DAY 1..HEAT 90-100 DEG. C FOR 30 MIN ( WOULDN'T KILL ENDOSPORES)INCUBATE AT 37 DEG. C FOR 24 HOURS
DAY 2.. HEAT 90-100 DEG C FOR 30 MIN...INCUBATE AT 37 DEG C FOR 24 HRS
DAY 3.. HEAT 90-100 DEG C FOR 30 MIN