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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Genotype refers to an individual's __________.
genes for particular traits (always 2 letters (Aa, AA, aa)
Phenotype refers to an individual's __________ ___________.
physical appearance (caused by one's genotype)
Alleles are two forms of the same ___________.
gene (trait)
Upper case letters are ________ forms of alleles while lower case alleles are the _________ alleles.
dominant

recessive
A ______ unit of heredity in a cell that determine the physical characteristics composed of segments of DNA, a molecule threadlike structures called chromosomes.
Gene
__________ are chains of amino acids. Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide molecules.
Polypeptides
_________ are rodlike structures in the nucleus seen during cell division; contains the hereditary units, or genes.
Chromosome
What is the first process resulting in the production of a strand of mRNA that is complementary to a segment of DNA?
Transcription
Having identical alleles (as AA or aa) for a given trait; pure breeding is called ___________
Homozygous

(alleles can be homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive)
Having two different alleles (Aa) for a given trait is called ________.
Heterozygous

(Cannot be dominant or recessive because they are two different ones)
n number of chromosomes; half the diploid number; the number characteristic of gametes which contain only one set of chromosomes is called _____________.
Haploid
2n number of chromosomes; twice the number of chromosomes found in gametes is called _________.
Diploid
Process by which the sequence of codons in mRNA dictates the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptiden is called _____________.
Translation
There are 22 pairs of _________ which are __________ Chromosomes.
Autosomes

nonsex
Each individual as 2 sex chromosomes.
The male has a ___ and an ____ chromosone.
The female has a ____ and an ____ sex chromosone.
Male - Y and an X

Female - 2-X chromosones
______________is the first Mendelian Law and states that
Separation of alleles from each other during meiosis so that each gamete receives one one factor of a given pair.
Segregation
Sex-Linked Trait
Phenotype that is controlled by a gene located on a sex chromosome, usually the X chromosome, whose pattern of inheritance differs in males and females.
How many alleles for one trait are normally found in the genotype of an individual/organism?
2

(one allele is inherited from each parent)
Define the Law of Independent Assortment
Mendel's 2nd law says:

when two factors are involved, they assort at random during the formation of gametes.
DEFINE LAW OF SEGREGATION
MENDEL'S FIRST LAW

the pair of alleles for a trait of each parent separate and only one allele passes from each parent to an offspring.
What is Meiosis 1 and 2?
Division of daughter cells into haploid chromosomes (one set)
1 - one cell w/two chromosomes separate into two cells w/pr of chromosomes each.
2 - two cells divide into 4 cells w/ one chromosome each
What is Mitosis?
Division of cell into two daughter cells w/ same number and type of chromosomes (same genetic makeup). Happens during growth & repair of cell life. Pg 339
An individual has ___ pairs of chromosomes:
___ autosomes and
___ sex chromosomes.
46 chromosomes
22 PAIRS of autosomes (44 CHROMOSOMES)
1 PAIR OF SEX CHROM (2 CHROM)
Tay-Sachs Disease

_________is inherited as an autosomal recessive. Affected infant shows neurological impairment--gradually becomes blind, helpless, and paralyzed, and usually dies by age four. Tayprevalent in Jewish people from central and eastern European descent.
Tay-Sachs disease
______________ is most common lethal genetic recessive disease among U.S. Caucasians. The thick mucus in bronchial passageways and pancreatic ducts interferes with the functioning of these organs. a lack of water following through results in the thick mucus. The gene for the defect is on chromosome 7. (salty sweat)
Cystic Fibrosis
___________ is recessive genetic inherited disease lack an enzyme needed for the normal metabolism of phenylalanine. Phenylketone thus accumulates in the urine. If the infant is not put diet until age seven, brain damage and severe mental retardation result.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
____ is dominant over ____

Phenotype will be __________
A, a

dominant
crossing heterozygote w/ heterozygote
(Aa x Aa) would result in what ratios
of genotypes and phenotypes
genotype _ 1:2:1

phenotype 3:1 (75%)
Name 3 autosomal dominant disorders
huntington's disease
marfian's disease
neurofibromoatosis
WHAT IS KARYOTYPING?
AN ARRANGEMENT OF ONE'S CHROMOSOMES ON AS A PHOTOGRAPH
IN GENETICS, A FAMILY TREE TO INDICATE WHO IS AFFECTED BY A TRAIT IS CALLED A
_______________.
PEDIGREE
WHAT IS MONOHYBRID CROSS
CROSS OF TWO PARENTS WITH ONE TRAIT TO DETERMINE ALLELES OF OFFSPRING
WHAT IS A DIHYBRID CROSS?
CROSS OF TWO PARENTS WITH MORE THAN ONE ALLELE TO DETERMINE ALLELE PERCENTAGES OF OFFSPRING.
WHAT DOES P1 stand for?
parental cross
WHAT DOES F1 STAND FOR?
FIRST SET OF OFFSPRING
IF YOU CROSS F1 AND F1 IN PLANTS WHAT DO YOU GET?
F2 (THE THIRD GENERATION)
WHAT IS THE PHENOTYPE RATIO WHEN CROSSING HETEROZYGOUS AND HETEROZYGOUS?
PHENOTYPE IS 3:1
WHAT IS PHENOTYPE RATIO WHEN CROSSING HETEROZYGOUS AND HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE?
PHENOTYPE IS 1:1
_____________________ GENETIC DISORDERS ARE USUALLY INHERITED FROM UNAFFECTED PARENTS (CARRIERS); SOME EXAMPLES ARE ALBINOISM, PKU AND CYSTIC FIBROSIS
AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE DISORDERS
(HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE AND HETEROZYGOUS)
___________ GENETIC DISORDER OCCURS WHEN A IS DOMINANT AND IS ALWAYS EXPRESSED OVER a. HETEROZYGOTES ARE AFFECTED. Some examples are ___________ _____________.
COMPLETE DOMINANCE

CLEFT CHIN, HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE
_______________ DISCOVERED SICKLE-CELL WHICH IS A GENETIC DISEASE OF _____________
DR. JAMES HERRICK
INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
WHAT ARE X-LINKED DISEASES? WHICH SEX IS MORE AFFECTED?
DISEASED CARRIED ON THE X CHROMOSOMES.
MALES ARE MORE AFFECTED
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF X-LINKED DISORDERS?
COLORBLINDEDNESS, HEMOPHILIAC, MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
INHERETED TRAITS WHICH ARE INFLUENCED BY MANY TRAITS ARE CALLED _____________ ________________. WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES?
POLYGENIC INHERITANCE

HEIGHT, BODY BUILD, IQ, COLOR OF HAIR, SKIN & EYES
BLOOD TYPES

HOW MANY ALLELES ARE THERE FOR THE 4 BLOOD TYPES? AND WHAT ARE THEY?
3 ALLELES
IA, IB and i
FOR PURPOSES OF THIS SECTION WHAT ARE THE FOUR DIFFERENT TYPES OF BLOOD?
A, AB, B, AND O
WHAT IS DNA?
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID - GENETIC MATERIAL FOUND IN CHROMOSOMES CELLS- GENETIC MAKE UP OF AN INDIVIDUAL
DNA IS MADE UP OF _______________ AND JOINED BY MOLECULES FORMING _______
NUCLEIC ACID,
NUCLEOCTIDES
WHAT ARE NUCLOTIDES COMPOSED OF?
A PHOSPHATE, SUGAR AND A NITROGEN-CONTAINING BASE
WHAT ARE THE FOUR NUCLEOTIDES THAT MAKE UP THE DNA MOLECULE?
ADENINE (A)
THYMINE (T)
CYTOSINE(C)
GUANINE (G)
WHAT IS THE FORM OF DNA?
A DOUBLE STRANDED HELIX W/ SUGAR-PHOSPATE AS ITS BACKBONE.
WHAT IS THE COMPLIMENTARY BASE PAIRING OF THE NUCLEOTIDES AND WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THEY PAIR UP?
THEY FORM DOUBLE STRANDS OF THE HELIX

ADENINE (A) PAIRS WITH THYMINE (T)

CYTOSINE (C) PAIRS WITH GUANINE (G)
_____________ CONNECT THE PAIRS OF NUCLEOTIDES (ATC&G) _______ ALLOW FOR REPLICATION AND SYNTHESIS AND THEY LOOK LIKE ______ ON A LADDER OF THE DOUBLE STRANDED HELIX.
HYDROGEN BONDS
RUNGS
HOW LONG WOULD A DNA HELIX BE OUTSIDE OF THE NUCLEUS?
6 FEET
WHAT WAS ROSALIND FRANKLINS ROLE IN DISCOVERING DNA?
SHE DEVELOPED AN X-RAY OF THE REPEATING STRUCTURE OF DNA AND GAVE IT TO MAURICE WILKINS
________ AND _________ ARE CREDITED WITH DISCOVERING DNA STRUCTURE.
WATSON & CRICK
HOW MANY HYDROGEN BONDS PAIRS C & G?
3
HOW MANY HYDROGEN BONDS PAIRS A & T?
2
2AT3GC

DNA PAIRING (2 BONDS FOR AT AND 3 BONDS FOR GC)
2AU3GC

RNA PAIRING - 2 BONDS FOR ADENINE & URACIL AND 3 FOR GUANINE & CYTOSINE
DEFINE RNA
IT IS A HELPER OF DNA. AS mRNA IT MIRRORS DNA (TRANSCRIPTION) LEAVES NUCLEUS,
TRANSLATION: associates w/ ribosomes, tRNA BRINGS AMINO ACIDES TO RIBOSOMES BINDS W/ RIBOSOME
and pairing between anticonds & codons creates the amino acids to be in the orignal order dicated by the DNA bases.
DEFINE mRNA
mRNA (messenger RNA) is the template of DNA which formed in nucleus and leaves nucleus & carries genetic info to cytoplasm
DEFINE tRNA
tRNA IS THE TRANSFER RNA which transfers amino acids to ribosomes where protein is synthesized.
WHAT IS THE CYTOPLASM?
PLACE WHERE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS OCCURS IN THE TRANSLATION PROCESS OF GENE EXPRESSION.
_________ _________ HELPS CHROMOSOMES DECONDENSE IN THE AREA TO BE TRANSCRIBED - HELPS IN GENE EXPRESSION
ACTIVATED CHROMATIN
________ _________ ARE DNA-BINDING PROTEINS AND REGULATE GENE ACTIVITY DURING CELL SPECIALIZATION
TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
DEFINE RNA POLYMERASE
ENZYME IN NUCLEUS THAT CREATES THE MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) - 3' TO 5'

(DNA IS 5' TO 3')
WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?
GENETIC ENGINEERING TO ALTER THE GENOMES OF ORGANISMS
DEFINE THE HUMAN GENOME
ALL THE GENETIC INFO OF AN INDIV OR SPECIES
BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS ARE USED TO SUPPLY DRUGS---- WHERE DO THEY COME FROM?
TRANSGENIC BACTERIA - INSULIN & HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE
PLANTS - PEST RESISTANCE
DEFINE NONDISJUNTION
AN ABNORMAL CHROMOSOME MOVEMENT - PATTERN - CHROMOSOMES ARE ADDED TO OR MISSING - A MODE OF INHERITANCE
_____________ IS THE PHASE THAT CELLS ARE TAKEN TO DO A KARYOTYPE
METAPHASE