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18 Cards in this Set

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microbial biotech
better enzymes and organisms for making foods, simplifying/ manufacturing/ processing, decontimiation of waste removal

ex. leaching of oil and minerals from soil to increase mining efficiency
agricultural
genetically engineered plants, drought resistance, tolerate cold temp, greater food yields. range of pharmaceutical proteins (molecular pharming)
animal
sources for medically valuable proteins such as antibodies

transgenic animals: express therapeutic proteins in their milk

konck out exp:1 or more genes disrupted, helpful for learning about functino of gene when it is lost

dolly=first animal cloned
forensic
DNA fingerprinting-unique DNA pattern
bioremediation
use of biotech. to process and degrade variety of natural and manmade substances; esp those that contribute to pollution
aquatic
aquaculture: raising fish or shellfish in controlled conditions for food sources
medical
gene therapy: treat genetic conditions by inserting normal genes or replace diseased genes

stem cell= immature cells with potential to develop and specialize into nerve cells, blood cells, etc. developed into different tissue for transplantations to replace damage tissue
regulatory
govern the industry
quality assurance: regulation of final quality of a product, lab testing, monitoring processes and applicatinos
Pharmacogenomics
really customized medicine
tailor-design drug therapy and treatment strategies based on genetic profile of patient
more effective and specific treatment approach
SNPs
single nucleotide changes or mutations; how we respond to sress and disease; cause of certain genetic diseases

goal of HGP to identify and develop SNP maps of human genome
DNA microarray
gene chip; compare patterns/reveal patient's SNP patterns
sickel cell
autosomal recessive trait
sickel cell heterozygote (have only 1 mutated gene, not sick) have protection from malaria
exons
regions to be translated (expressed) into part of protein
introns
intervening sequence to be removed (spliced out) before mRNA maturation; regulatory functions
bacterium
prokaryote
plasmid: small circular extra chromosomal DNA can replicate and be transferred to different cells
operon
1 chromosome with 5 sequential genes; 5 different start sites of protein synthesis
virus
smaller than bacteria
survival by infection other organisms
genetic material: DNA or RNA (retrovirus)
small compact genome with overlapping frames for protein codes
classes of RNA
-mRNA: carries genetic info out of nucleus for protein synthesis

-tRNA:decodes info from mRNA by bringing correct amino acid into place

-rRNA: factory for protein synthesis, constitutes 50% of ribsome