Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/118

Click to flip

118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What drives evolution?
Natural Selection
What is the fundamental difference between evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics?
Evolutionary psychology seeks to understand adaptive value of universal aspects of human behavior, behavioral genetics wants to understand individual differences in human behavior.
What are limitations to evolutionary psychology
Posthoc, relies on comparisons across species.
Eugenics
Science that seeks to promote genetic/biological improvement of human society by dictating who can and cannot mate.
What did Heston and Denney's adoption study on kids with Sz mothers tell us?
Sz is genetically based.
Adoption study: Transracial adoption study on IQ
Black children raised in culture of the test performed similar to the biological children of adoptive parents.
Adoption Study on Human Fatness
Adoptee daughter correlates strongly to biological mother and not to adoptive mother.
Adoption Study Designs
1. Start with target behavior in parents and then study outcomes in adoptees.
2. Start with target behavior in adoptee and study both parents
3. Correlations between adoptive child and biological child.
Limitations to adoption studies
1. Feasibility-closed records, etc.
2. Representativeness- bio parents usually lower on SES, adoptive parents usually higher on SES
3. Selective placement- match bio and adoptive parents on measures
4. Prenatal enviro- dictated by bio parent.
Zygosity Determination Methods
1. Physical similarity
2. Questionnaire method
3. Genetic testing
Limitations to Twin Studies
Twins are complicated. Prenatal complications.
Equal Environment Assumption
Mzs and Dzs have etiologically relevant similar environments.
Ways of testing the EEA
1. Physical similarity should correlate with similar treatment- Not true
2. Degree of similar childhood enviro should increase similar enviro- not true
3. Mzs treated more similarly than Dz- not true
4. Misdiag Dz should behave more similarly- not true.
Heritability
the proportion of variance that can be attributed to genetic effects
Calculations: A
2(rMZ-rDZ)
Calculating C
2rDZ-rMZ
Advances with model fitting in twin studies
more questions can be addressed, statistically specify hypothesis, confidence intervals
Sibling Interaction Effects
Does the effects of one sibling affect the behavior of the other sibling.
Offspring of twins design, describe it.
Look at rates of disease in offspring of disconcordant DZ and MZ.
Linkage Mapping
1. Collect families who are affected
2. Test markers evenly spaced on genome
3. Calculate Lod score- odds of seeing a marker if marker is linked to disease.
Parametric Linkage Analysis-Problems
Modes of inheritence, disease allele frequency, need Mendelian disorders
Difficulties with Complex Disorders
1. Many genes of small effects
2. Genetic heterogeneity
3. Epistasis
4. GE Interaction
5. Phenotype definition
Endophenotypes
Phenotypes intermediary to the disease outcome that may be more directly affected by the genotype
Nonparametric Linkage Analysis
Makes no assumption about mode of inheritance or number of genes. Based on allele sharing.
Advantages/Disadvantages to Linkage Analysis
Advantages
1. Systematically scan the genome
Disadvantages
1. Not very powerful
2. Need 100s or 1000s of family members
Increase power of linkage anaylsis
1. Use qualitative trais
2. Extremely concordant or discordant twin pairs
3. Endophenotypes
COGA strategy
1. Ascertain multiplex alcoholic families.
2. Use linkage analysis to ID chromo regions
3. Use association analysis to narrow region.
Case-control Association Analysis Pro/Con
Compare affected ind w/ not affected.

Pro:
1. powerful
Con:
1. subject to population stratification
Family-based association analysis: Pro/Con and methods
Pro:
1. pop strat not a problem
Con:
1. Not as powerful

Methods:
Transmission Disequilibrium Test- looking for overtransmission of an allele.
Inbred Strains (in mice)and Logic
breed offspring together until you get very similar individuals.

1. w/i strain comparisons- enviro diff.
2. btw strain comparisons- genetic diff.
Selective Breeding
1. Measure phenotype of interest.
2. Mate high w/ high, low w/ low
Synteny
portions of dna in mouse are same as in humans
Random Mutagenesis
Expose mouse to chemical and then mate with normal female. Screen for effects.
Transgenic
Insert foreign DNA into mouse DNA and observe effect.
Knock out
turn off a gene and see effects
NPY Region in rats
Potential stimulator of appetite.
Knockout- increased EtOh consumption and decreased sleep time.
Transgenic- decreased EtOH consumption and increased sleep time
Microarray analysis
compare gene products of two samples simultaneously
Two-Group Hypothesis
1. Organic- attributable to major traumatic event that causes irreversible damage
2. Cultural/Familial- small, life events that contribute to variation of IQ
Differential-Loading Hypothesis
1. Familial/cultural MR stems from many little factors.
2. Females are buffered against expression of factors
3. Affected females show greater loading.
4. Higher loading is transmitted at greater risk to offspring.
IQ and genetics
1. Genetic heritability is around 50%
2. Genetic factors become more important as age increases
Why does H2 increase with age?
1. New genes
2. Gene-enviro correlations
IQ vs. SES
A increases with increasing SES
C decreases with increasing SES
Gene for Alzheimers
APOE E4 is associated with 10x increased risk for alzheimers.
Chromosome related to IQ (muscarinic receptors)
Chr 2
Which personality measure has a heirarchical factor structure?
Multidimensional personality questionnaire
What are the five factors measures in the five factor model?
Openness to new things
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
What three items are measured on the Tridimensional personality questionnaire?
Novelty Seeking
Reward Dependence
Harm avoidance

(Persistance)
What seems to account for one's personality (A, C or E)
A and E but not C
About how heritable is personality?
40-60%
How does genetics/environment contribute to personality across time?
Genetics contributes to stability whereas environment contributes to change.
How is personality assessed in children?
Measure temperament in children.
Why do you get odd results in children?
1. Parental report or laboratory observation in children.
2. Sample size- easier to collect samples in adults
What personality types are associated with alcohol use?
1. High novelty seeking
2. Low harm avoidance
3. Low or high award dependence
What disorder is associated with the gene that affects neuroticism?
Anxiety disorder.
How does ASPD present itself in people w/ regard to sex?
Higher rate in males but greater loading in females.
How do genes effect display of ASPD?
GE interaction- look at criminality of adoptive parents
What is linked to the gene associated with conduct disorder?
What chromo?
Alcohol dependence on chr 2
Cloningers theory (DRD4)
Long allels associated with less efficient binding of dopamine. These people are more NS to compensate for decreased dopamine binding.
Causes of drinking initiation?
Almost entirely environmental.
Environmental influences on alcohol use.
1. aspects of home enviro
2. aspects of school/community
3. gene-enviro interaction
What environmental factor has the largest influence on alcohol use?
Parental monitoring
Neighborhood/sibling effects on alcohol use?
If school mate says yes to drinking alcohol, percentage replying yes goes up.
What are two examples of GE interaction in alcohol use?
1. As religiousity increases, common environment becomes more important.
2. Decreased A/Increased C in married women
Neighborhood variables that influence alcohol use.
1. Young adults
2. Lots of migration
3. Regional alcohol sales
Alcohol abuse vs. dependence
Abuse:
characterized by trouble w/ law, etc
Dependence:
withdrawal effects
Alcohol dependence as a fxn of age of onset.
Increased alcoholism as age of onset becomes younger
How heritable is alcoholism in males? females?
both around 50%
What forms of alcoholism are highly heritable?
Type 2 and comorbid for drug abuse
What is the criteria for an inherited mediator?
1. Associated with but not consequence of alcoholism.
2. Trasmitted in families of alcoholics
3. Heritable
Alcohol sensitivity- research?
1. Reduced alcohol sensitivity in children of alcoholics as opposed to controls.
2. Longitudinal study where men who later developed alcoholism showed reduced sensitivity.
Sensitivity: what are the risk factors?
Attenuated response to the positive effects of alcohol.

Heightened response to the negative effects of alcohol.
EEG patterns in alcoholics?
1. Increased Beta levels in alcoholics.
2. Increased beta in offspring of alcoholics.
Flushing response
Ethnic group differences. Heart palpitations, facial redness.
What is the pathway of alcohol metabolism?
Alcohol--ADH-->Acetaldehyde--ALDH--> acetate
What allele is associated with an inability to break down acetaldehyde?
ALDH2*2
What chromosome and gene is associated with alcoholism? What other disorders is this gene associated with?
Chromosome 4, GABRA2.

GABRA2 also associated with CD, ASPD, and drug dependence.
pleiotropy
one gene has multiple effects on phenotypes
achondroplasia
AD, short stature, new mutation
Marfan's syndrom
AD, thin extremities
Huntington's Disease
AD, located on chromo 4, CAG repeats
anticipation
The effects of a genotype get more severe across generations
phenylketonuria
AR, mental retardation
muscular dystrophy
X linked recessive, muscle degredation
hemophilia
X linked, low levels of blood protein
red-green colorblind
X-linked recessive
Lesch-Nyhan disease
X-linked, self mutilation
variable expressivity
various phenotypes for a given genotype
epistasis
the effects of one gene are dependent on those of another
polymorphisms
regions of DNA that differ across people
RFLP
make cuts at certain 5 base pair sequences
microsatellite repeat polymorphism
replicate using PCR and then run on gel electrophoresis
SNP
run on computer chip
Prader-willi syndrome
paternal deletion on chromo 15, can't feel hunger satiation
Angelman's syndrom
maternal deletion on chromo 15,
Klinefelter syndrome
XXY, phenotypic male, sterile, small testes
Turners syndrom
45X, 47XXX
45X;46XX
phenotypic female, sexual immaturity
fragil x MR
CGG repeats on X chromo.
What are the cross cultural rates of UP and BP?
The rates fluctuate for UP but not for BP.
What is the evidence in support for common etiology of BP and UP?
1. Relatives of BP are at an increased risk for UP
2. BP MZ twins discordant for polarity
What is the evidence against common etiology of BP and UP?
1. Differential heritability
2. No cross-family transmission
3. UP MZ twins cordant for polarity.
Is there a sex difference in heritability for UP?
NO!
What evidence is there for the serotonin (5-HT) system being involved in UP?
1. Drugs that target serotonin reuptake system treat UP
2. Short allele (5-HTTT) is associated with increased rate of depression in face of adversity.
What are the gene ID findings for BP?
1. Multiple rather than single gene
2. X-linked hypothesis- decreased fatehr son transmission.
positive symptoms of schizo.
failure to have normal thoughts,
delusions, hallucinations
negative symptoms of schizo
inappropriate affect, detioration of social behavior
age of onset in males females in Sz?
age of onset in males is earlier but have same rates of effect
What did the danish adoption study on schizo find?
children of sz bio parents had higher rates of sz.
What is the multifactorial threshold model?
There is a quantitative continuum (liability). If someone meets threshold value, they are affected.
What is the diathesis stress model?
If there is a diathesis (genetic predisposition) then stress can trigger the onset of schizo
What evidence is there for schizotypal disorder being related to schizo?
Family studies, twin studies and adoption studies
What endophenotype can be used to study schizophrenia?
Sensory gating. Szs have problem filtering out irrelevant information.
How is sensory gating in relatives of Sz
They show reduced sensory gating.
How do Szs and bipolars differ in sensory gating
Szs exhibit through all phases where as BP only exhibit in manic phase.
What chromos have been linked to Sz
6, 8 and 22.
What proteins are associated w/ Sz
Chromo 6- dysbindin
Chromo 8- Neuregulin
Chromo 22- COMT gene
What disease is thought to stem from the same gene area as Sz?
Velo-cardiofacial syndrome.
Deletion causing developmental disorder, cardio abnorm. and schizophrenia. On chromo 22.
Evidence against shared enviro influences in Sz.
1. Majority of Szs do not have Sz sibs
2. Adoptees do not have increased risk if adoptive parent is Sz
3. Dz correlation is less than 1/2 Mz.
4. Offspring studies of discordant Sz twins.
Nonshared enviro influences on Schizo
1. Birth complications
2. Drug use
3. Life events