Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/49

Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Karyotype
a visual look at your genes
Human Genome Project
to map all the genes of the human chromosomes
Gene
a section of DNA
function-one gene produces protein
DNA
A specific sequence of nucleotides-3 make up a triplet which now has a specific meaning
Mutation
Change in the sequence of nucleotides
Mutagen
A condition that causes a mutation Example:radiation, UV light
Teratogen
A condition that causes a change in the fetus or embryo
Carcinogen
Cancer causing agent
Oncogene
A gene that causes cancer
Oncologist
Someone that studies cancer
How many different genes are there?
25,000-30,000
Chromosome
A DNA molecule wrapped in proteins
Haploid
Half of a full set in one cell (23)
Diploid
Pairs of each chromosomes in one cell (46)
Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosome #1 from mom is homologous to chromosome #1 from dad, they are for eachother
Autosomes
22pairs, chromosomes that deal with all of the body except gender
Sex Chromosomes
#23 deals with gender
X-has more genes than Y and tells to develop testes and penis
Y-tells to develop ovaries and vagina
SRY Gene
Allele
Various forms for a specific gene Example: hair color
Genotype
the actual genetic makeup, the nucleotide sequence of that gene
Phenotype
The expression, interaction between genotype and the environment, its what you actually see
Homozygous
the alleles are the same allele from mom and dad-black hair
Heterozygous
the alleles are different from mom and dad-black hair and blond hair
Dominant traits
Cover up the recessive traits-brown eyes
Recessive trait
a trait covered by the dominant trait, blue eyes are recessive, you only get blue eyes when both alleles are blue
Trisomy 21
downs syndrome-3 copies of chromosome 21
Microorganisms
Virus
Bacteria
Fungi
Nematodes
Virus
inside the cell, a protein coat that surrounds RNA or DNA
Bacteria
single celled organisms, in the interstitial spaces
Shape of Bacteria
Rods-anything thats a bacilia-ecoli
Spehere-coccus-ghonnacoccus
Spiral-Spirocheates, lyme disease
Gramm Stain
if the coat can stain with gramm stain then its positive if not then its negative
Fungi
on surface of the body
Nematodes
multicellular, worms that burrow through tissue
Normal flora/fauna
have to have them to live healthy
they take up space on every surface of the body especially ones that are wet
Symbiosis
2 or more organisms living close together
Mutualism
When 2 or more organisms live together and all of them benefit
Parasitic
one benefits but the others are harmed, often termed as a pathogen
Pathogen
something that causes disease they look for nutrients to reproduce
Population
it becomes so great that it causes a disease
Infectious Disease
A disruption in the normal phisology caused by an organism invading the body. Have to pass from one person to the next
Vector
The way that the disease is passed from one host to another, best way is the respiratory system
Air
when someone sneezes it can contain bacteria, then you breathe in that bacteria
Water
Ecoli can live in water but we treat it so we dont get sick
Host to host
physical contact, sexual contact or bodily fluids, transfer from blood or feces example, when you have an open cut and blood gets into it or when you have touched something and then eat food
Asymptomatic
host that is not showing symptoms but they can still pass the pathogens example-HIV
Different Infectious Diseases
STD's-HIV
TB
Hepatitis-inflammation of liver
Measles
mumps
chickenpox
smallpox
Scarlet fever
Anthrax-biological warfare-respiratory system
Memigitis-infection of the menges-spinal/cranial
Flu,Viral, bacterial-stomach
VRE-Vancolnycin Resistant Enterococcus
a facultative pathogen we cant fight the disease very well but antibotics help to get rid of most of them
MRSA-Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
a facultative pathogen, one of the flesh eating bacteria in our population, can happen outside of hospitals
Facultative Pathogen
a pathogen that if it gets the opportunity then it will cause a disease
Obligate
Causes disease-TB, Measles, mumps