Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/60

Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Speculators
Held back stocks of grain until people were desperate, then charged a lot
Bubonic

Pneumonic

Buba
Flea transmits

Humans transmit

Boil
Nationalism
Feeling of unity and identity that binds together a people
Merchet
Fine to lord for woman’s marriage because losing worker
Bann
Public announcement that couple planned to marry
Fur-collar crime
Nobles used superior social status to rob and extort
Legal dualism
People subject to laws of their homeland
Racism
Was based on culture, language, now based on blood descent
Dalimil Chronicle
Survey of Bohemian history pervaded with Czech hostility towards Germans
Communes
Northern Italian cities, sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles
Popolo
Men without qualifications of property, years of residence, social connections to hold power, used violence to take over city governments, wanted equality of taxation, movement for republican government, but failed
Signori
Despots, one-man rulers
Oligarchies
Rule of merchant aristocracies
Princely court
Opportunity for despot or oligarch to flaunt wealth
Individualism
Stress of personality, uniqueness, genius, full development of capabilities and talents
Mannerism
Artistic style popular during Italian High Renaissance, artificiality over naturalism, reflects growing self-consciousness of artist
Humanism
Christian revival of antiquity, profound interest in and study of Latin classics
Secularism
Basic concern with material world
Gabelle
Charles VII’s tax on salt
Taille
French land tax
Conversos, Marranos, New Christians
Spanish Jews forced to convert
Pluralism
Holding multiple church offices at once
Absenteeism
Not attending to one’s offices, not being present for one’s clerical duties
Simony
Sale of clerical offices
Benefices
Offices
Indulgence
The forgiveness of a sin for money
Transubstantiation
Catholic belief that bread and wine actually become body and blood of Christ, fully present through consecrating words of priest
Consubstantiation
Luther’s belief of spiritual change, Christ is really present but bread and wine not transformed
Seven sacraments
baptism, marriage, ordination, penance, communion/Eucharist, confirmation, Last Rites
Preacherships
Preachers, men of superior education, delivered about 100 sermons a year
Claustration
Strict enclosure of religious women, stressed by Council of Trent
Baillis and seneschals
Exercised fiscal and judicial responsibility in France
Bourse
Exchange
Escorial
Monastery northwest of Madrid, Philip II
Portolans
Written descriptions of the courses along which ships sailed
Caciques
Indian leaders, chiefs
Viceroyalties
Administrative divisions, viceroys exercise broad military and civil authority as representatives of crown
Galleys
Narrow, open boats propelled by manpower
Caravel
Small, light, three-masted sailing ship
Audiencia
Board of judges, highest judicial body, viceroy presides
Intendants
Royal officials with broad military, administrative, and financial authority
Quinto
One fifth all precious metals mined in South America, claimed by Spanish crown
Corregidores
Local Portuguese officials, held judicial and military powers
Sabbats
Assemblies of witches, sexual orgies, eating babies
Elizabethan/Jacobean
English music, poetry, prose, drama of late 1500s, early 1600s
Baroque
Art style, religious emotionalism, drama, motion, ceaseless striving, seen in Gesù, Jesuit Church of Jesus in Rome
Sovereignty
The possession of a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries
Absolutism
Ruler has sovereignty, divine right
Totalitarianism
Twentieth-century, direct all facets of a state's culture in interests of state, total regulation
Paulette
Annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in offices
Généralités
32 districts Richelieu divided France into, intendants had to perform tasks in them
Noblesse de robe
Newer judicial nobility in France
Frondeur
Opposer of French absolutist government
Mercantilism
A collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state
Servicios
National Spanish taxes in 1500s, fell heavily on poor
Constitutionalism
The limitation of government by law, balance between power of government and rights of subjects
Franchise
Vote
Commonwealth
Republican government
Stadholder
Dutch representative for a province, appointed by States General
Cabinet system
Leading ministers formulate common policy, conduct business of country