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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
loss or termination of a pregnancy before the fetus has developed to a state of viability
abortion
loss/termination of pregnancy before 20 weeks
may be no known cause
spontaneous abortion
termination of a pregnancy for personal/medical reasons
induced abortion
more than 2-3 abortions
may be spontaneous or induced
habitual abortion
group of specific physical & psychologic symptoms occur
"during last few days" of menstrual cycle and "before the onset" of menstruation
Prmenstrual syndrome
genetic predisition
contributing factors--stress, high caffeine
general diagnostic studies--rule out other conditions
menstrual diary
factors and tools to diagnosis
of PMS
abdominal cramping pain associated with menstrual flow
dysmenorrhea
headache, n & v, dyspareunia, painful defecation or irregular bleeding
associated symptoms of dysmenorrhea
not a disease, caused by excess prostaglandin and/or increased sensitivity to it
cause of dysmenorrhea
early transition signs, ends with cessation of menses
perimenopause
physiologic cessation of menses associated with declining ovarian function
considered complet after 1 year of amenorrhea
menopause
average age 45-55 unless associated with surgery, illness, cigarette smoking, chemotherapy
irregular bleeding is common
menopause--when it occurs
occur when natural defenses of the acid vaginal secretions and presence of lactobaciluus are disrupted
inflammatory & infectious conditions of vulva, vagina, and cervix
poor nutrition, aging, antibiotic therapy, STD's, corticosteroid therapy
causes--inflammatory & infectious conditions of vulva, vagina, and cervix
candida albicans
trichonmonas
bacterial vaginosis
cervicitis
clinical manifestations of inflammatory & infectious conditions of vulva, vagina, and cervix
infectious condition may include salpingitis, oophoritis and peritonitis
Pelvic inflammatory disease
often result of untreated cervicitis
chlamydia trachomatis, & neisseria gonorrhoeae most common organisms not all r/t STD
increased risk: multiple sexual partners or partner that is infected
remains major cause of infertility
increased risk ectopic pregnancies
PID--risk
symptoms may be silent--evaluate risk factors and screen

abdominal pain starts gradually and remains "constant", increasing pain with intercourse, menstruation
s/s infection
PID--symptoms
teach warning signs and early treatment course
PID--patient care
presence of normal endometriosis tissue outside the endometrial cavity
endometriosis
usually late 20's
white nonpara 5-10% of women
endometriosis--affects who
significant pain and loss of work
cystlike nodules may rupture--acute pain--leads to adhesions and infertility
endometriosis--signs & symptoms
retrograde menstrual flow, genetic predisposition, altered immune system
endometriosis--possible causes
smooth muscle tumors,
most common benign tumors of the female genitial tract
leiomyomas
ages 30
10% caucasian
30% African American
leiomyomas--most common groups
unknown cause--appear ot depend on hormones
leiomyomas--cause
no symptoms to
urterine bleeding, pain with pelvic pressure (sex), assocaited with miscarriage, infertility
persistent heavy bleeding, anemia, rapidly growing turmors are indicators for surgery
leiomyomas--signs and symptoms
diagnosis based on pelvic exam
leiomyomas--diagnosed how
benign lesions that are found on speculum examination
cervical polyps--what and how diagnosed
cherry red, soft and fragile
gnereally small, multiple
cause--unknown
cervical polyps--characteristics and cause
infectious condition may include salpingitis, oophoritis and peritonitis
Pelvic inflammatory disease
often result of untreated cervicitis
chlamydia trachomatis, & neisseria gonorrhoeae most common organisms-- not all r/t STD
increased risk: multiple sexual partners or partner that is infected
remains major cause of infertility
increased risk ectopic pregnancies
PID--risk
symptoms may be silent--evaluate risk factors and screen

abdominal pain starts gradually and remains "constant", increasing pain with intercourse, menstruation
s/s infection
PID--symptoms
teach warning signs and early treatment course
PID--patient care
presence of normal endometriosis tissue outside the endometrial cavity
endometriosis
usually late 20's
white nonpara 5-10% of women
endometriosis--affects who
significant pain and loss of work
cystlike nodules may rupture--acute pain--leads to adhesions and infertility
endometriosis--signs & symptoms
retrograde menstrual flow, genetic predisposition, altered immune system
endometriosis--possible causes
smooth muscle tumors,
most common benign tumors of the female genitial tract
leiomyomas
ages 30
10% caucasian
30% African American
leiomyomas--most common groups
unknown cause--appear ot depend on hormones
leiomyomas--cause
no symptoms to
urterine bleeding, pain with pelvic pressure (sex), assocaited with miscarriage, infertility
persistent heavy bleeding, anemia, rapidly growing turmors are indicators for surgery
leiomyomas--signs and symptoms
diagnosis based on pelvic exam
leiomyomas--diagnosed how
benign lesions that are found on speculum examination
cervical polyps--what and how diagnosed
cherry red, soft and fragile
gnereally small, multiple
cause--unknown
cervical polyps--characteristics and cause
metorrhagia and bleeding after straining and coitus
prone to infection
cervical polyps--sign & symptoms
excisions or polypectomy
sent to pathology to rule out malignancies
cervical polyps--treatment
excess estrogen and testosterone but not progesterone
imbalance prevents egg release
leads to small cyst formation
polycystic ovary syndrome
irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, hirsutism, obestiy ad acne
polycystic ovary syndrome--signs and symptoms