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34 Cards in this Set

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Learning
relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience not maturation
Learning
relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience not maturation
Maturation
unfolding of biologically triggered events
Behaviorists
study animals in a laboratory
Black Box or Stimulus Response Approach
-cant know a humans thoughts
-study behaviors and responses
Pros of Studying Animal Behavior
-Highly controlled setting
-more flexable than humans
-make generalizations from animals to humans
Seligman
-Learned Helplessness
-there is no association between behavior and a positive outcome
Cons of Studying Animal Behavior
-cant completely generalize animal behavior in a lab to animal behavior in the wild
-cant generalize from animals to humans
-ethical considerations
2 Types of Learning Theory
-Classical conditioning
-operant conditioning (or instrumental)
CC
-classical conditioning
-learning that occurs from paired association
Ivan Pavlov
-discovered CC
-russian physiologist
-bell rings, dogs salivate
John Watson
-father of American behaviorism (1920s)
-CC a fear response in a human
Stimulus Generalization
learn a response to 1 stimuli, but applyt aht response to other similar stimuli
Stimulus Discrimination
-opposite of generalization
-learn a response but do not apply it to other stimuli
Stimulus Extinction
-process by which we undo the conditioning
-present the CS without the US
-original learning is never completely forgotten
Spontaneous Recovery
-after extinction, the CS can again elicit the return of the CR, but the response in weakened.
-we cna agin enter the CS and US to relearn the CR in a shorter period of time
Taste Aversion
-Single trial learning
-takes one pairing of the NS and US to learn the association
OC
-operant conditioning
-learning that occurs when a consequence follows a behavior
-shape or change behavior
3 Differences between CC and OC
cc-animal is passive(dont have to do anything for US
oc-animal is active

cc-response is elicited(reflex actions)
oc-response is emitted

cc-automatic or reflex action
oc-voluntary actions
Operant =
Response
B.F. Skinner
-developed Skinner box
-rats press lever for food reward
Shaping
-in class
-animal is trained to make the operand(rat pressed lever)
-reward closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior
OC Applied to Humans
-school settings(token economy)
-behavior modifications(habit control)
OC Generalization
-subject learns to perform a response to other similar stimuli
-reward a child for studying math, child studies english for no reward
OC Discrimination
-train an animal to not respond to other stimuli
-red light not green light
OC extinction
undo the conditioning(no longer give reward)
3 Ways to Influence Response in OC
-positive reinforcement
-negative reinforcement
-punishment
Positive Reinforcement
event that occurs after a behavior that increses the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the future
Negative Reinforcement
taking away a noxious stimlus following a behavior, incresing the likelihood of that behavior occuring in the future
Punishment
consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior being repeated
2 Types of Reinforcement
-continuous
-partial
Continuous Reinforcement
everytime a person does the response, they get a reward
Partial Reinforcement
recieve a reward only sometimes that the response occurs
4 Types of Partial Reinforcement
-Fixed Ratio(FR)fixed # of responses
-Variable Ratio(VR)varied # of responses
-Fixed Interval(FI)fixed # of time
-Variable Interval(VI)unpredictable period of time